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3.20: A Second Kind of Change: Deleting Letters

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

1. The following rule is called the Rule of Simple Addition:

Unless you know some reason to make a change, when you add elements together to spell a word, do not make any changes at all. Simply add the elements together.

2. Twinning Rule. Except for the letter <x>, you twin the final consonant of a free base that ends in the pattern CVC# when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel .

3. The Twinning Rule gives us one good reason for making a change when we add elements together to spell a word. Another good reason has to do with silent final <e>.

Sometimes when you add a suffix to a free base, or a word, that ends with a silent final <e> that shows that the vowel in front of it is long, you take away the final <e> hope + ing = hop \cancel{e} + ing = hoping

This change is called deleting the final <e>.

4. Analyze each of these words into a free base and a suffix. Each free base ends with a final <e> that shows that the vowel in front of it is long. Sometimes the final <e> was deleted when the suffix was added.Show any final <e>'s that have been deleted. Some of the suffixes may be new to you, but don't worry about that. Just remember that eachword starts with a free base that ends with a silent final <e>:

Word = Free Base + Suffix
ripeness = ripe + ness
ripest = rip\cancel{e} + est
hopes = hope + s
hoping = hop\cancel{e} + ing
likely = like + ly
liked = lik\cancel{e} + ed
whiteness = white + ness
whitest = whit\cancel{e} + est
closes = close + s
closed = clos\cancel{e} + ed
timer = tim\cancel{e} + er
timely = time + ly
naming = nam\cancel{e} + ing
names = name + s
cutely = cute + ly
cutest = cut\cancel{e} + est
places = place + s
placed = plac\cancel{e} + ed
user = us\cancel{e} + er
useless = use + less
writer = writ\cancel{e} + er
writes = write + s

5. In words where the final <e> was not deleted when the suffix was added,did the suffix start with a vowel or with a consonant? a consonant

6. In words where the final <e> was deleted, did the suffix start with a vowel or with a consonant? a vowel

7. First Rule for Deleting Silent Final <e> If a free base ends with a silent final <e> that shows that the vowel sound is long, you delete the silent final <e> when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel.

Word Venn. Inside the circle put only words in which a silent final <e> has beendeleted. Outside the circle put words in which no silent final <e> has been deleted.

& \text{prized} \surd && \text{hiding} \surd && \text{gentleWomen} \surd && \text{placing} \surd \\& \text{wastepaper} \surd && \text{bluebrid} \surd && \text{striped} \surd && \text{shoestring} \surd \\& \text{icing} \surd && \text{cubed} \surd && \text{fireball} \surd && \text{stripped} \surd

Teaching Notes.

1. We are dealing here with the second of the three kinds of changes that were introduced in the Teaching Notes to Lesson 32 in Book One: (i) adding one or more letters, (ii)deleting one or more letters, (iii) replacing one or more letters. Simple addition is an example of no change; twinning is an example of adding a letter; final <e> deletion is an example of deleting a letter; replacement, which is really a deletion followed by a replacement, is exemplified in assimilation, which is introduced in Book Four, Lessons 11-14.

2. Silent final <e> has several functions other than marking long vowels, functions that are discussed in later lessons of the Basic Speller: It can mark soft <c> and soft <g>(Book Three, Lessons 33-39); it can mark voiced <th> (Book Four, Lesson 16); it can insulate otherwise word-final <\mathrm{s}>, <z>, <\mathrm{u}>, and <v> (Book Four, Lesson 17); some final<e>'s are fossils, reflecting older, usually French, spellings and pronunciations(Book Six, Lesson 17). In spite of these various functions, the ultimate rule for deleting silent final <e> is not much more complicated than the first version produced in this current lesson. The major complication is for cases where the <e> is marking a soft <c> or <g> (thus, for instance, managing, with <e> deletion vs. manageable, without) (Book Three, Lessons 35 and 39). Also words that end with the pattern Ve# (such as tee and toe) create a minor complication (as in toeing and teeing, with no <e> deletion). But again, the final <e> deletion rule as produced in this lesson is very solid and gets at the heart of the matter. For more on silent final <e> and its deletion rule, see AES, pp. 145-60.

3. Word Venn. This could be a difficult activity. It may help to point out to the students that when they are looking for words to fit inside the circle, those in which a silent final <e> has been deleted, they are looking for the kind of words with which they worked in section 4 of this lesson. Encourage them to analyze the words as they do in section 4.Like those in section 4, all of the words in the Venn list start with a free base, and all butthe five compounds end with a suffix. (As was pointed out in the teaching notes toLesson 31 of Book 1, compound words practically always are formed through simple addition, with no final <e> deletion.)

In the Venn the pair striped and stripped illustrates the distinctions between long andshort vowels, between CVC# and VCV, and between contexts for silent final <e> deletion and for twinning.

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Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Last Modified:

Jan 26, 2015
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