1. The following rule is called the Rule of Simple Addition:
Unless you know some reason to make a change, when you add elements together to spell a word, do not make any changes at all. Simply add the elements together.
2. Twinning Rule. Except for the letter <x>, you twin the finalconsonantof a free base that ends in the patternCVC#when you add a suffix that starts with avowel.
3. The Twinning Rule gives us one good reason for making a change when we add elements together to spell a word. Another good reason has to do with silent final <e>.
Sometimes when you add a suffix to a free base, or a word, that ends with a silent final <e> that shows that the vowel in front of it is long, you take away the final <e> hope+ing=hope+ing=hoping
This change is called deleting the final <e>.
4. Analyze each of these words into a free base and a suffix. Each free base ends with a final <e> that shows that the vowel in front of it is long. Sometimes the final <e> was deleted when the suffix was added.Show any final <e>'s that have been deleted. Some of the suffixes may be new to you, but don't worry about that. Just remember that eachword starts with a free base that ends with a silent final <e>:
= Free Base
5. In words where the final <e> was not deleted when the suffix was added,did the suffix start with a vowel or with a consonant? a consonant
6. In words where the final <e> was deleted, did the suffix start with a vowel or with a consonant? a vowel
7. First Rule for Deleting Silent Final <e> If a free base ends with a silent final <e> that shows that the vowel sound is long, you delete the silent final <e> when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel.
Word Venn. Inside the circle put only words in which a silent final <e> has beendeleted. Outside the circle put words in which no silent final <e> has been deleted.
1. We are dealing here with the second of the three kinds of changes that were introduced in the Teaching Notes to Lesson 32 in Book One: (i) adding one or more letters, (ii)deleting one or more letters, (iii) replacing one or more letters. Simple addition is an example of no change; twinning is an example of adding a letter; final <e> deletion is an example of deleting a letter; replacement, which is really a deletion followed by a replacement, is exemplified in assimilation, which is introduced in Book Four, Lessons 11-14.
2. Silent final <e> has several functions other than marking long vowels, functions that are discussed in later lessons of the Basic Speller: It can mark soft <c> and soft <g>(Book Three, Lessons 33-39); it can mark voiced <th> (Book Four, Lesson 16); it can insulate otherwise word-final <s>, <z>, <u>, and <v> (Book Four, Lesson 17); some final<e>'s are fossils, reflecting older, usually French, spellings and pronunciations(Book Six, Lesson 17). In spite of these various functions, the ultimate rule for deleting silent final <e> is not much more complicated than the first version produced in this current lesson. The major complication is for cases where the <e> is marking a soft <c> or <g> (thus, for instance, managing, with <e> deletion vs. manageable, without) (Book Three, Lessons 35 and 39). Also words that end with the pattern Ve# (such as tee and toe) create a minor complication (as in toeing and teeing, with no <e> deletion). But again, the final <e> deletion rule as produced in this lesson is very solid and gets at the heart of the matter. For more on silent final <e> and its deletion rule, see AES, pp. 145-60.
3. Word Venn. This could be a difficult activity. It may help to point out to the students that when they are looking for words to fit inside the circle, those in which a silent final <e> has been deleted, they are looking for the kind of words with which they worked in section 4 of this lesson. Encourage them to analyze the words as they do in section 4.Like those in section 4, all of the words in the Venn list start with a free base, and all butthe five compounds end with a suffix. (As was pointed out in the teaching notes toLesson 31 of Book 1, compound words practically always are formed through simple addition, with no final <e> deletion.)
In the Venn the pair striped and stripped illustrates the distinctions between long andshort vowels, between CVC# and VCV, and between contexts for silent final <e> deletion and for twinning.