<img src="https://d5nxst8fruw4z.cloudfront.net/atrk.gif?account=iA1Pi1a8Dy00ym" style="display:none" height="1" width="1" alt="" />
Skip Navigation

3.20: A Second Kind of Change: Deleting Letters

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
Turn In

A Second Kind of Change: Deleting Letters

1. The following rule is called the Rule of Simple Addition:

Unless you know some reason to make a change, when you add elements together to spell a word, do not make any changes at all. Simply add the elements together.

2. Twinning Rule. Except for the letter <x>, you twin the final consonant of a free base that ends in the pattern CVC# when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel .

3. The Twinning Rule gives us one good reason for making a change when we add elements together to spell a word. Another good reason has to do with silent final <e>.

Sometimes when you add a suffix to a free base, or a word, that ends with a silent final <e> that shows that the vowel in front of it is long, you take away the final <e> hope+ing=hope+ing=hoping

This change is called deleting the final <e>.

4. Analyze each of these words into a free base and a suffix. Each free base ends with a final <e> that shows that the vowel in front of it is long. Sometimes the final <e> was deleted when the suffix was added.Show any final <e>'s that have been deleted. Some of the suffixes may be new to you, but don't worry about that. Just remember that eachword starts with a free base that ends with a silent final <e>:

Word = Free Base + Suffix
ripeness = ripe + ness
ripest = ripe + est
hopes = hope + s
hoping = hope + ing
likely = like + ly
liked = like + ed
whiteness = white + ness
whitest = white + est
closes = close + s
closed = close + ed
timer = time + er
timely = time + ly
naming = name + ing
names = name + s
cutely = cute + ly
cutest = cute + est
places = place + s
placed = place + ed
user = use + er
useless = use + less
writer = write + er
writes = write + s

5. In words where the final <e> was not deleted when the suffix was added,did the suffix start with a vowel or with a consonant? a consonant

6. In words where the final <e> was deleted, did the suffix start with a vowel or with a consonant? a vowel

7. First Rule for Deleting Silent Final <e> If a free base ends with a silent final <e> that shows that the vowel sound is long, you delete the silent final <e> when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel.

Word Venn. Inside the circle put only words in which a silent final <e> has beendeleted. Outside the circle put words in which no silent final <e> has been deleted.


Teaching Notes.

1. We are dealing here with the second of the three kinds of changes that were introduced in the Teaching Notes to Lesson 32 in Book One: (i) adding one or more letters, (ii)deleting one or more letters, (iii) replacing one or more letters. Simple addition is an example of no change; twinning is an example of adding a letter; final <e> deletion is an example of deleting a letter; replacement, which is really a deletion followed by a replacement, is exemplified in assimilation, which is introduced in Book Four, Lessons 11-14.

2. Silent final <e> has several functions other than marking long vowels, functions that are discussed in later lessons of the Basic Speller: It can mark soft <c> and soft <g>(Book Three, Lessons 33-39); it can mark voiced <th> (Book Four, Lesson 16); it can insulate otherwise word-final <s>, <z>, <u>, and <v> (Book Four, Lesson 17); some final<e>'s are fossils, reflecting older, usually French, spellings and pronunciations(Book Six, Lesson 17). In spite of these various functions, the ultimate rule for deleting silent final <e> is not much more complicated than the first version produced in this current lesson. The major complication is for cases where the <e> is marking a soft <c> or <g> (thus, for instance, managing, with <e> deletion vs. manageable, without) (Book Three, Lessons 35 and 39). Also words that end with the pattern Ve# (such as tee and toe) create a minor complication (as in toeing and teeing, with no <e> deletion). But again, the final <e> deletion rule as produced in this lesson is very solid and gets at the heart of the matter. For more on silent final <e> and its deletion rule, see AES, pp. 145-60.

3. Word Venn. This could be a difficult activity. It may help to point out to the students that when they are looking for words to fit inside the circle, those in which a silent final <e> has been deleted, they are looking for the kind of words with which they worked in section 4 of this lesson. Encourage them to analyze the words as they do in section 4.Like those in section 4, all of the words in the Venn list start with a free base, and all butthe five compounds end with a suffix. (As was pointed out in the teaching notes toLesson 31 of Book 1, compound words practically always are formed through simple addition, with no final <e> deletion.)

In the Venn the pair striped and stripped illustrates the distinctions between long andshort vowels, between CVC# and VCV, and between contexts for silent final <e> deletion and for twinning.

Notes/Highlights Having trouble? Report an issue.

Color Highlighted Text Notes
Please to create your own Highlights / Notes
Show More

Image Attributions

Show Hide Details
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Jul 07, 2015
Files can only be attached to the latest version of section
Please wait...
Please wait...
Image Detail
Sizes: Medium | Original