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# 4.5: Summary of the Suffixes -s and -es

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Summary of the Suffixes -s and -es

1. When you make a plural noun out of a singular noun that ends in the letters <s>\begin{align*} \underline{}\end{align*}, <z>, <x>, <ch>, <sh>, you add -es.

2. When you make a plural noun out of a singular noun that ends in the letter <y> with a consonant letter right in front of it, you change the <y> to <i>\begin{align*}\underline{}\end{align*} and add the suffix -es.

3. But usually when you want to make a noun plural, you just add the suffix -s

4. Now put those three statements together into one good rule for how to spell plural nouns with the -s or -es suffix:

Rule for Spelling Plural Nouns

When you make a plural out of singular noun that ends in the letters <s>\begin{align*} \underline{}\end{align*}, <z>, <x>, <ch>, or <sh>, you add the suffix -es, and when you want to make a plural out of singular noun that ends in a <y> with a consonant letter right in front of it, you change the <y> to <i>\begin{align*}\underline{}\end{align*} and add the suffix -es, but with other nouns you just add the suffix -s.

5. Analyze each of these plural nouns into a singular noun plus a plural suffix. Show any letters that must be deleted or replaced:

Plural Noun = Singular Noun + Plural Suffix
countries = country\begin{align*}\cancel{y}\end{align*} + i + es
years = year + s
freeways = freeway + s
turtles = turtle + s
elephants = elephant + s
dances = dance\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + es
monkeys = monkey + s
kisses = kiss + es
families = family\begin{align*}\cancel{y}\end{align*} + l + es
schoolboys = schoolboy + s

6. Add the correct suffix to each of these singular nouns to make them plural, again showing any letters that must be deleted or replaced:

Singular Noun + Suffix = Plural Noun
try\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{y}}\end{align*} + i + es = tries
Wednesday + s = Wednesdays
speech + es = speeches
surprise\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{e}}\end{align*} + es = surprises
attorney + s = attorneys
mommy\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{y}}\end{align*} + i + s = mommies
price\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{e}}\end{align*} + es = prices
beauty\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{y}}\end{align*} + i + s = beauties
society\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{y}}\end{align*} + i + es = societies
country\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{y}}\end{align*} + i + es = countries

Teaching Notes. In items 5 and 6 it is important that the students remember the final <e> deletion in dances, surprises, and prices.

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