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Review of Twinning and Final <e> Deletion

1. The Twinning Rule. Unless it is the letter <x>, you twin the final consonant of a word that has one vowel sound and ends in the pattern CVC when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel:

& \text{run} + \text{n} + \text{ing} \\& \ \text{cvc} \qquad \quad  \text{v}

Add the suffix to each of the following words. Remember the twinning rule:

Word + Suffix = New Word
tap + p + ing = tapping
trip + p + ed = tripped
twig + s = twigs
put + t + ing = putting
roast + er = roaster
gyp + y + ed = gypped
search + ed = searched
quiz + z + ing = quizzing
in + n + ing = inning
bar + r + ed = barred
gleam + ing = gleaming
wax + y = waxy
tap + s = taps
up + p + er = upper

2. Rule for Deleting Silent Final <e>. If a word ends with a silent final <e> that shows that a vowel sound is long, you delete the silent final <e> when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel.

Add the suffix to each of the following words. Sometimes they will combine through simple addition, sometimes there will be twinning, and sometimes a final <e> will be deleted:

Word + Suffix = New Word
strik\cancel{e} + ing = striking
twig + g + y = twiggy
mov\cancel{e} + ed = moved
tax + es = taxes
decid\cancel{e} + ed = decided
roast + ed = roasted
president + s = presidents
problem + s = problems
cut + t + er = cutter
search + ing = searching
dim + m + est = dimmest
obey + ing = obeying
fail + ed = failed
scrub + b + er = scrubber
succeed + ing = succeeding

3. Unless it is an <x>, you twin the final consonant of a word that has one vowel sound and ends in the pattern CVC when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel .

4. If a word ends with a silent final <e> that shows that a vowel sound is long , you delete the silent final <e> when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel.

Word Venn. A Word Venn is an activity for helping you sort things out, or divide them into groups. Inside the circle, in the area marked ‘1', you should put only words that contain examples of final <e> deletion. Outside the circle, in the area marked ‘2', you should put only words that do not contain examples of final <e> deletion.As as you sort them out, check off the words:

& \text{bared} \surd && \text{tapped} \surd && \text{cuter} \surd && \text{obeyed} \surd \\& \text{barred} \surd && \text{waxing} \surd && \text{cutter} \surd && \text{removing} \surd \\ & \text{taped} \surd && \text{succeeding} \surd && \text{decided} \surd && \text{striker} \surd

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. The Twinning Rule is introduced in Book 1, Lessons 32-38. For more on twinning, see my American English Spelling (AES) (Johns Hopkins, 1988), pp. 161-76.

Item 2. The current version of the rule for deleting silent final <e> is introduced in Book 2, Lessons 20-21. For more on the deletion of silent final <e>, see AES, pp. 145-60.

Word Venn. Word Venns provide a sorting strategy rather like that done in tables and matrixes. But Venns allow sorts with more dimensions than do one-dimensional tables or two-dimensional matrixes. One-dimensional Venns, with only one circle, like that in this lesson, define only two groups: those words that go inside the circle vs. those that go outside it. Two-dimensional Venns, with two intersecting circles define four groups: (i) words that go inside the first circle but not inside the second, (ii) words that go inside the second circle but not inside the first, (iii) words that go inside both circles, and (iv) words that do not go inside either circle. For an example of a two-dimensional Venn, see Lesson 4. Three-dimensional Venns, with three intersecting circles, define eight different groups (see Lesson 17). You can actually have four- and five-dimensional Venns, though things get quite complex when you try to keep track of so many different groups. (A four-dimensional Venn, with four intersecting circles, defines fourteen distinct groups!)

Word Venns are based on the logic of the Venn diagrams used in mathematics, with which your students may already be working. (Venn diagrams were invented by the British mathematician John Venn.) Future lessons will present a series of increasingly complex Venns with lists of current words that students sort into the diagrams. Like the work with tables and matrixes, work with Venns serves the following purposes: 1. It gives the students another chance to work with the current words, to work with them in a way that involves some kind of analysis (determined by the features that are being used to define the Venn groups) as well as simply copying the words. 2. It reinforces the concepts represented by the features defining the Venn groups and their relationships. 3. It gives the students practice with another tool of inductive reasoning: for observing, analysing, and displaying results.

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