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6.11: Soft < c > and Deleting Silent Final < e >

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Soft <c> and Deleting Silent Final <e>

1. When the letter <c> has an <e>, \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*}, or <y> right after it, it spells the sound [s] and is called soft <c>.

2. Rule for Deleting Silent Final <e>. If a word ends with a silent <e> that shows that the vowel sound in the word is long, you delete the silent final <e> when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel.

3. We must revise our final <e> deletion rule a little, because the final <e> that marks asoft <c> doesn't be have quite like the final <e> that just marks a long vowel. Here are some words analyzed for you. Show any final <e> deletions as we have done with announcer. Write “Yes” or “No” in the right hand column to show whether a final <e> was deleted when the suffix was added to the free stem:

Free Stem + Suffix = Word Was a final <e>; deleted?
announc\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + er = announcer Yes
choic\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + est = choicest Yes
juic\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + y = juicy Yes
embrace\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + able = embraceable No
surface + s = surfaces No
notice + able = noticeable No
introduc\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ing = introducing Yes
scarce + ly = scarcely No
service + able = serviceable No
pric\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = priced Yes

5. Combine each free stem and suffix to make a word. Mark any final <e>’s that are deleted:

Free Stem + Suffix = Word
lac\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + y = lacy
practic\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = practiced
service + s = services
announce + ment = announcement
juic\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + y = juicy
fierc\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + est = fiercest
embrace + able = embraceable
offic\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + er = officer
sentenc\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = sentenced
rejoic\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ing = rejoicing

7. Look at the cases where the final <e> was deleted. You should have found that in each case the suffix started with one of three letters: <e> , \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*} or <y>.

Which three letters must follow a soft <c>? <e> , \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*} , or <y> .

8. Be ready to talk about this question: Why do we delete the final <e> that marks a soft <c> only if the suffix starts with <e>, \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*}, or <y>?

9. New Final <e> Deletion Rule. You delete the final <e> that marks a soft <c> only when you add a suffix that starts with <e> , \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*}, or <y> ; you delete a final <e> that is only marking a long vowel whenever you add a suffix that starts with any vowel.

Word Changles. Follow the directions carefully. Write the words you make in the column on the right. The shaded boxes will contain free stems that you worked with in this lesson:

  1. Write the word clue. clue
  2. Change the <l> to <j>, add an \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} and scramble the letters. juice
  3. Change <ju> to <pr>. price
  4. Change \begin{align*}<{\mathrm{i}}>\end{align*} to \begin{align*}<\mathrm{a}>\end{align*}. Change \begin{align*}<\mathrm{p}>\end{align*} to \begin{align*}{<\mathrm{s}>}\end{align*}and scramble the letters. acres, cares, races , scare
  5. Add a <c> and scramble the letters. scarce
  6. Change <c> to <d> and scramble the letters. scared, sacred, cedars

Teaching Notes. The main point that students should take from this lesson is that a soft <c> must have an <e>, \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*}, or <y> right after it, so if a stem ends in <ce> and the suffix being added does not start with an <e>, \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*}, or <y>, we must keep the final <e> in the stem to keep the <c> soft. Thus, there is no final <e> deletion. But if the suffix starts with an <e>, \begin{align*}{<\mathrm{i}>}\end{align*}, or <y>, we no longer need the final <e> in the stem to keep the <c> soft, so it is deleted.

Notice that sometimes a final <c> in a stem will shift from hard to soft and vice versa: For instance, in criticism, the second <c> is soft because of the following \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*}, but in critical the second <c> is hard because of the following \begin{align*}<\mathrm{a}>\end{align*}. This kind of alternation, however, does not affect the point being made about final <e> deletion in this lesson.

Changles. It might be useful to have the students point out the hard and soft <c>s in the various words.

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Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Jul 07, 2015
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