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# 6.21: Twinning in Longer Words

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Twinning in Longer Words

1. Twinning Rule: Except for the letter <x>, you twin the final consonant of a word that has one vowel sound and ends CVC when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel.

That Twinning Rule is a very good one — but it only works for words that have just one vowel sound. We have to add to it to make it work for twinning in longer words.

2. Some of the following words have one vowel sound; some have two. Remember that we are not talking about letters here; we are talking about sounds. Many times you will see two or three vowel letters but hear only one vowel sound. For instance, the word mailed has three vowel letters in it, <a>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{a}>\end{align*}, <i>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*}, and <e> — but it has only one vowel sound, [a¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{a}}]\end{align*}: [ma¯ld]\begin{align*}[\mathrm{m} \bar{\mathrm{a}}\mathrm{ld}]\end{align*}.

twigforbidretainparknervepracticeretreatbunchconcealyouthgleammajorperchedassistsuedsubmit\begin{align*}&\text{twig} && \text{nerve} && \text{conceal} && \text{perched}\\ &\text{forbid} && \text{practice} && \text{youth} && \text{assist}\\ &\text{retain} && \text{retreat} && \text{gleam} && \text{sued}\\ &\text{park} && \text{bunch} && \text{major} && \text{submit}\end{align*}

Sort the words into the two groups:

Words with . . .
one vowel sound two vowel sounds
twig forbid
park retain
nerve practice
bunch retreat
youth conceal
gleam major
perched assist
sued submit

3. Each of the words below consists of a free stem plus a suffix. Sometimes when the suffix was added, the final consonant of the stem was twinned; sometimes it was not. Your first job is to analyze each word into its free stem and suffix, showing any twinning that has taken place:

Word = Free Stem + Suffix
forbidding = forbid + d + ing
assisted = assist + ed
committed = commit + t + ed
revolting = revolt + ing
concealed = conceal + ed
submitting = submit + t + ing
disgusted = disgust + ed
retainer = retain + er
regretting = regret + t + ing
retreated = retreat + ed
referring = refer + r + ing
unsnapped = unsnap + p + ed

4. Now sort the free stems that you found in your analysis into these two groups:

Free stems in which twinning...
occurred did not occur
forbid assist
commit revolt
submit conceal
regret disgust
refer retain
unsnap retreat

Word Venn. Into Circle A put only words that end CVC. Into Circle B put only words that contain two vowel sounds:

assistbunchconcealforbidgleamgypmajornerveparkpracticeragretainretreatsubmittwigyouth\begin{align*}&\text{assist}\surd && \text{gleam}\surd && \text{park}\surd && \text{retreat}\surd\\ &\text{bunch}\surd && \text{gyp}\surd && \text{practice}\surd && \text{submit}\surd \\ &\text{conceal}\surd && \text{major}\surd && \text{rag}\surd && \text{twig}\surd\\ &\text{forbid}\surd && \text{nerve}\surd && \text{retain}\surd && \text{youth}\surd\end{align*}

Teaching Notes. In this lesson the students begin the analysis that will lead them in following lessons to a twinning rule that is good for stems of any length. The main addition to the rule they have already learned is that in stems with two or more vowel sounds there must be heavy stress on the stem's final vowel sound both before and after the suffix is added.

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