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# 6.23: Lesson Forty-seven

Created by: CK-12

## Strong Stress and the Twinning Rule

1. You twin the final consonant of a word with two vowel sounds only when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel and the word ends CVC .

2. Analyze each of the following words into its free stem and suffix. Sometimes when the suffix was added, the final consonant of the free stem was twinned; sometimes it was not. Show any twinning that did occur:

Word = Free Stem + Suffix
murderer = murder + er
forbidden = forbid + d + en
centered = center + ed
committed = commit + t + ed
softener = soften + er
regretted = regret + t + ed

3. Now sort the stems into these two groups. Notice here that we are not listing the whole original word, just its free stem:

Free stems in which . . .
twinning did occur twinning did not occur
forb$\acute{i}$d m$\acute{u}$rder
comm$\acute{i}$t c$\acute{e}$nter
regr$\acute{e}$t s$\acute{o}$ften

4. Now in the list above mark the strong stress in each of the six stems. For instance, you would mark forbid this way: forbid.

5. Fill in the blanks with either first or last.

The stems in which twinning occurred have strong stress on the second (or last) vowel sound. The stems in which twinning did not occur have strong stress on the first vowel sound.

6. You twin the final consonant of a word that has two vowel sounds whenever you add a suffix that starts with a vowel and the word ends CVC and has strong stress on the second (or last) vowel.

Word Flow. In this Flow you can only go through a box with rounded corners if the word you are making follows the rule stated in that box:

Teaching Notes. In American English we heed quite strictly the requirement that the final vowel of the stem be stressed. In British English the stress requirement is less strictly heeded, leading to variant spellings in which the first, without twinning after an unstressed vowel, is more typical of American English while the second, with such twinning, is more typical of British English:canceled vs. cancelled, signaling vs. signalling, worshiper vs. worshipper, etc. Since American usage is to require a stressed vowel before any twinning, we can prefer those variants with simple addition rather than twinning in such words, though the students should be warned to be on the alert for cases of twinning where their new twinnig rule would not call for it. In AES, pp. 161-76 cover the twinning rule in considerable detail. Pages 165-72 in particular discuss the problems associated with stess.

Word Flow. A good follow-up to this Flow would be to ask why each of the nine words that flow out of the “Not with twinning” do not have twinning.

## Subjects:

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

Feb 23, 2012

Sep 08, 2014