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A Final Point About Twinning in Longer Words

1. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has two vowel sounds only when four conditions are met:

i. The stem ends with a single consonant letter that is not <x>.

ii. The stem ends with the pattern CVC

iii. The suffix starts with a vowel

iv. The stem has strong stress on the second (or final) vowel sound.

The strong stress must be on the final vowel of the stem before you add the suffix, and it must stay on that vowel when the suffix is added. If the stress is not on the final vowel of the stem both before and after the suffix is added, we do not twin the final consonant.

Sometimes the stress is where it should be after the suffix has been added, but it was not there before the suffix was added. For instance, symbolic has stress on the <o>. But in the stem symbol the stress is on the <y>. So the final <l> is not twinned in symbolic.

Sometimes the stress is where it should be at first, but when the suffix is added, the stress moves. For instance, prefer has stress on the final vowel, but if we add the suffix -ence, we make the word preference, which has stress on the first vowel. So the final <r> is not twinned in preference.

Notice, though, that if we add a suffix like -ed to the stem prefer, we make preferred, in which the stress stays on the final vowel of the stem, so the final <r> is twinned.

2. In the table below when you are given a word, analyze it into its free stem plus suffix. Show any twinning that takes place. When you are given the analysis, write the word in the Word column.

Word Analysis: Free Stem + Suffix
preference prefer + ence
attaching attach + ing
permitted permit + t + ed
laborious labor + ious
murmuring murmur + ing
forbidden forbid + d + en
referee refer + ee
avoided avoid + ed
equipment equip + ment
preferring prefer + r + ing
poisonous poison + ous
whispering whisper + ing
regretted regret + t + ed
angelic angel + ic
enjoyed enjoy + ed
relaxing relax + ing
outtalked outtalk + ed
forgotten forgot + t + en
dreaded dread + ed
allowance allow + ance

3. In fifteen of the words above twinning did not take place when the suffix was added to the stem. In each case it was because one of the four conditions was not met. Write the fifteen words into the Word column in the table below. Then put a check in the column that gives the reason twinning did not take place in that word:

Word The stem ends with the wrong letter The stem doen't end CVC The stress is in the wrong place The suffix starts with the wrong letter
preference \surd
attaching \surd
laborious \surd
murmuring \surd
referee \surd
avoided \surd
equipment \surd
poisonous \surd
whispering \surd
angelic \surd
enjoyed \surd
relaxing \surd
outtalked \surd
dreaded \surd
allowance \surd

Teaching Notes.

The main point of this lesson is that all four of the conditions must be met for twinning to take place. If just one of the four is not met, twinning does not occur.

Items 2-3. Though it has nothing to do with twinning, be sure that the students get the two <t>s in outtalked due to simple addition: one for the out, one for the talk.

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1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Last Modified:

Apr 29, 2014
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