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7.20: Lesson Twenty

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More About Changing <y> to <\mathrm{i}> and Some Review of Rules and Sounds

1. Earlier you saw that sometimes when we add a suffix to a stem that ends in a <y> that has a consonant right in front of it, we change the <y> to <\mathrm{i}>. For example:

cry + ed = cr\cancel{\mathrm{y}} + i + ed = cried

easy + est = eas\cancel{\mathrm{y}} + i + est = easiest

But notice what would happen if we changed the <y> to <\mathrm{i}> when the suffix starts with an <\mathrm{i}>:

accompany + ing = accompan\cancel{\mathrm{y}} + i + ing = ^*accompaniing

We would get <ii>. In English we avoid <ii>. So when we add a suffix that starts with an <\mathrm{i}> to a stem that ends in <y>, we use simple addition:

accompany + ing = accompanying

toy + ing = toying

2. When you add a suffix that starts with an <\mathrm{i}> to a stem that ends in a <y>, you use__________________________; when the suffix starts with any other vowel, and the <y> has a consonant right in front of it, you change the_______to__________.

3. Combine the following prefixes, stems, and suffixes. Show any cases of twinning, silent final <e> deletion, changes of <y> to <\mathrm{i}>, and assimilation. Watch for cases where the <y> does not change to <\mathrm{i}>:

Elements = Word
a\cancel{d} + p + ply + ing = applying
bath\cancel{e} + er + s = bathers
un + a\cancel{d} + f + fect + ion + ate = unaffectionate
choos\cancel{e} + \cancel{y} + i + est = choosiest
up + set + t + ing = upsetting
glimps\cancel{e} + ed = glimpsed
un + re + serv\cancel{e} + ed + ly = unreservedly
ad + ventur\cancel{e} + ous = adventurous
re + a\cancel{d} + s + sur\cancel{e} + ed = reassured
re + gret + t + ing = regretting
dis + solv\cancel{e} + ing = dissolving
gauz\cancel{e} + y = gauzy
earl\cancel{y} + i + est = earllest
achiev\cancel{e} + er + s = achievers
sooth\cancel{e} + ing + ly = soothingly
a\cancel{d} + c + company + ing = accompanying
re + a\cancel{d} + p + pl\cancel{y} + i + ed = reapplied

4. You can hear the sound [t] at the beginning and end of the word toot. You can hear the sound [d] at the beginning and end of the word dude.

5. Underline the letters that spell [t] and [d] in the following words:

& \text{can\underline{d}i\underline{d}a\underline{t}e} && \text{a\underline{d}venture} && \text{buil\underline{d}ing} && \text{hospi\underline{t}al} && \text{s\underline{t}ruggle} \\& \text{a\underline{dd}ress} && \text{s\underline{t}ubborn} && \text{elec\underline{t}ric} && \text{succee\underline{d}} && \text{vege\underline{t}able} \\& \text{inclu\underline{d}e} && \text{bi\underline{t}ing} && \text{benefi\underline{t}} && \text{mo\underline{t}or} && \text{ghe\underline{tt}o}

6. Sort the fifteen words into these two groups. Some words will go into both groups:

Words with the sound [t]: Words with the sound [d]:
candidate hospital candidate adventure
stubborn motor address building
biting struggle include succeed
electric vegetable
benefit ghetto

7. Two ways to spell [t] are <t> and \underline{<tt>}.

Two ways to spell [d] are <d> and

.

Word Venn. Into circle A put only words in which a <y> has been changed to an <\mathrm{i}>. Into circle B put only words that contain the sound [t]. Into circle C put only words that contain the sound [d]:

& \text{earlier}\surd && \text{applied}\surd && \text{bathers}\surd && \text{accompanied}\surd \\& \text{reserved}\surd && \text{earliest}\surd && \text{gauzier}\surd && \text{choosiest}\surd \\& \text{upsetting}\surd && \text{candidate}\surd && \text{hospital}\surd && \text{ditties}\surd \\& \text{soothingly}\surd && \text{friendliest}\surd && \text{dissolve}\surd && \text{affected}\surd

Teaching Notes.

Item 5. In words like motor and biting the [t] may sound much like a [d]. This sound is called the flap-[d]. The following is from the teaching notes for Book 1, Lesson 14, where this flap is first mentioned: “The pattern here is that if the <t> or <\mathrm{tt}> has a stressed vowel right in front of it and an unstressed vowel right after it, it tends to become something in between [d] and [t] that linguists call a flap-[d]. The word flap is meant to indicate that it is a sound somewhat quicker than a full [d]. Technically, what is happening is that the [t], which is normally a unvoiced sound (that is, pronounced with no vibration of the vocal cords), picks up some voicing (or vibration of the vocal cords) from the surrounding vowels, which are voiced. (In less technical terms, we tend to start the cords buzzing with the preceding vowel and just keep them buzzing through the following vowel, rather than turning them on, then off for the [t], then on again.) Since [d] is the voiced counterpart of the voiceless [t], the result is a pronunciation of [t] that sounds like [d]. Most desk dictionaries show the sound spelled <t> and <t> in such words as [t], ignoring the flap-[d] pronunciation. But Webster's Third International Unabridged gives both [d] and [t] as pronunciations for them.”

This technical point is obviously not something to inflict on youngsters. It is mentioned here simply to encourage you to resist any temptation you may have to correct the pronunciation of students who seem to have more of a [d] than a [t] in their pronunciation of such words. They have Webster's Third and professional linguists on their side! Also, it is remotely possible that a student may notice the variation and ask about it. In case of such an astonishing event, I recommend that you praise the student for having a good ear, indeed, and explain that it is true that in such words as hotter and the others the [t] can begin to sound more like a [d], but that since the spelling is <t> or <\mathrm{tt}>, we (and most dictionaries) choose to treat the pronunciation as a [t]. For more on the flap-[d], see AES, pp. 338-39, and for the related flap-[t], see AES, pp. 342-43. (The flap-[t] is the thing that can sneak in between the [n] and the [s] of, say, sense, causing it to rhyme with cents.)

If students argue that adventure has a [t] in it, point out that though it does indeed have the letter <t> , it does not have the sound [t]. In adventure the <t> spells the sound [ch]. This spelling is due to a process called palatalization, which the students will study in Book 8, Lesson 40.

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Feb 23, 2012

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