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# 7.22: The Sound [t] and Twinning

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## The Sound [t] and Twinning

1. In those words in which [t] is spelled <tt>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{tt}>\end{align*} it is usually easy to see why there are two <t>'s. Here are the words from the last lesson in which [t] is spelled <tt>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{tt}>\end{align*}.

cattailcommittedsubmittedregrettingouttalkupsettingbottomattentionattend\begin{align*}& \text{cattail} && \text{regretting} && \text{bottom} \\ & \text{committed} && \text{outtalk} && \text{attention} \\ & \text{submitted} && \text{upsetting} && \text{attend} \end{align*}

2. A compound word is a word that contains at least two free stems, or shorter words - for example, blackbird (black + bird) and dogcatcher (dog + catcher). Sometimes the first stem in a compound word ends with a <t> and the second starts starts with a <t>. Where the two parts come together through simple addition, you get <tt>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{tt}>\end{align*}: cat + tail = cattail.

There is one other compound word in the nine words above that has [t] spelled <tt>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{tt}>\end{align*} because the first stem ends with <t> and the second stem starts with <t>. Find the word and analyze it into its two free stems:

Compound = Free Stem #1 + Free Stem #2
outtalk = out + talk

3. Sometimes [t] is spelled <tt>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{tt}>\end{align*} because of twinning: upsetting = upset + t + ing. You twin the final consonant of a word that has one vowel sound and ends CVC when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel. And you twin the final consonant of a word that has two vowel sounds whenever you add a suffix that starts with a vowel if the word ends CVC and has strong stress on the last vowel.

4. What is the suffix in the word upsetting? -ing

5. Does this suffix start with a vowel? yes

6. What is the stem to which the -ing in upsetting was added? upset

7. How many vowel sounds are there is in this stem? two

8. Does the stem end cvc? yes

9. Is there strong stess on the <e> in upset before and after you add the suffix? yes

10. Do you twin the final consonant of upset when you add a suffix like -ing? yes

11. Other than upsetting there are three more words among the nine above in which the <tt>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{tt}>\end{align*} spelling is due to twinning. Find the three words and analyze them to show where the <tt>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{tt}>\end{align*} comes from, as we did with upsetting.

Word = Free Stem + Suffix
upsetting = upset + t + ing
committed = commit + t + ed
submitted = submit + t + ed
regretting = regret + t + ing

Watch the Middles!

permitted
per mit + t ed
per mit + t ed
per mit + t ed
per mit + t ed
permitted
submitted
sub mit + t ed
sub mit + t ed
sub mit + t ed
sub mit + t ed
submitted

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