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# 7.3: The Suffix -ist

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## The Suffix -ist

1. Earlier you saw that the suffix -er changes verbs into nouns with the meaning “one that does”:

$& \text{teach + er = teacher (â€œone who teachesâ€)}\\ & \ \text{verb} \qquad \qquad \text{noun} \\& \text{burn} + \text{er} = \text{burner (â€œone that burnsâ€)}\\ & \ \text{verb} \qquad \qquad \text{noun}$

The suffix -ist changes nouns, verbs, and adjectives into nouns, with the meaning “one that works with, is connected with, or believes in” the thing referred to in the stem:

$& \text{harp} + \text{ist} = \text{harpist (â€œone who plays a harpâ€)} \\ & \text{noun} \qquad \qquad \ \ \text{noun}\\& \text{reform} + \text{ist} = \text{reformist (â€œone who believes that things should be reformedâ€)}\\& \text{verb} \qquad \qquad \quad \text{noun}\\& \text{pure} + \text{ist} = \text{purist (â€œone who believes that things should be pureâ€)}\\& \text{adjective} \qquad \ \text{noun}$

2. Analyze each of the following nouns into its free stem and suffix:

Noun = Free Stem + Suffix
harpist = harp + ist
artist = art + ist
orchardist = orchard + ist
tourist = tour + ist
humorist = humor + ist
projectionist = projection + ist
arsonist = arson + ist
cartoonist = cartoon + ist
conformist = conform + ist
environmentalist = environmental + ist

3. Add each of the stems and suffixes below to make nouns:

Stem + Suffix = Noun
harp + ist = harpist
real + ist = realist
vacation + ist = vacationist
final + ist = finalist
illusion + ist = illusionist
journal + ist = journalist
motor + ist = motorist
rac$\cancel{\mathrm{e}}$ + ist = racist
special + ist = specialist
vocal + ist = vocalist

4. The suffix -ist adds the meaning “one that works with, is connected with, or believes in” the thing referred to in the stem.

5. Analyze each of the following nouns into its free stem and suffix. Show any changes:

Noun = Free Stem + Suffix
druggist = drug + g + ist
bicyclist = bicycl$\cancel{e}$ + ist
extremist = extrem$\cancel{e}$ + ist
typist = typ$\cancel{e}$ + ist
environmentalist = environmental + ist
projectionist = projection + ist
specialist = special + ist
receptionist = reception + ist

Teaching Notes.

A word like jurist tells us something new about the <y>-to-$<\mathrm{i}>$ change: If we just added -ist to jury and changed the <y> to $<\mathrm{i}>$, we would get two $<\mathrm{i}>$'s in a row: jury + ist = jur$\cancel{y}$ + i + ist = $^*$juriist. In English we avoid double $<\mathrm{i}>$'s. We can double many letters — like <ee>, or <oo>, or $<\mathrm{tt}>$, or $<\mathrm{ss}>$, for instance - but we don't use <ii>. So instead of $^*$juriist with <ii>, we just delete the <y>: jury + ist = jur$\cancel{y}$+ ist = jurist (The <ii> at the end of the state name Hawaii is due to the spelling system for the Hawaiian language, not English.)

## Subjects:

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

Feb 23, 2012

Jan 26, 2015