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# 8.16: When is [p] Spelled < pp >?

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## When is [p] Spelled <pp>?

1. You have seen that a double consonant, like <pp>, can be caused by one of these reasons: simple addition, twinning, or assimilation:

A <pp> is caused by simple addition when an element that ends with a <p>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{p}>\end{align*} joins another element that starts with <p>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{p}>\end{align*}: lamp + post = lamppost

Sometimes <pp> is caused by twinning: tip + p + ing = tipping

Some cases of <pp> are caused by the assimilation of the prefixes ad-, sub, or ob- in front of stems that start with a <p>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{p}>\end{align*}: ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + p + peal = appeal

2. Each of the following words contains a <pp> because of one of the three reasons just given. Analyze each word enough to show whether the <pp> was caused by simple addition, twinning, or assimilation. Write the cause in the right column:

Word = Analysis Reason for <pp>
lamppost = lamp + post Simple addition
appears = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + p + pears Assimilation
tipping = tip + p + ing Twinning
wrapper = wrap + p + er Twinning
suppose = sub\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + p + pose Assimilation
oppose = ob\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + p + pose Assimilation
snapped = snap + p + ed Twinning
approaches = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + p + proaches Assimilation
opportunity = ob\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + p + portunity Assimilation
supply = sub\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + p + ply Assimilation
apply = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + p + ply Assimilation
slipper = slip + p + er Twinning
oppress = ob\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + p + press Assimilation
suppress = sub\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + p + press Assimilation
stepparent = step + parent Simple addition
unwrapped = unwrap + p + ed Twinning
opposite = ob\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + p + posite Assimilation
support = sub\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + p + port Assimilation
kidnapping = kidnap + p + ing Twinning

3. Think of another word that contains the spelling <pp> for each of the following reasons. Then analyze each word:

Reason Word Analysis
Twinning
Assimilation

4. Three reasons for spelling [p] <pp> are . . .

AssimilationTwinningSimpleaddition\begin{align*}Assimilation && Twinning && Simple addition\end{align*}

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