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8.18: Lesson Forty-two

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Spelling [p] After Short and Long Vowels

1. Fill in the blanks with either ‘long’ or ‘short’:

In the vcc pattern the vowel will usually be short if it is stressed.

In the vcv pattern the vowel will usually be long if it is stressed.

In the vc# pattern the vowel will usually be short if it is stressed.

2. Underline the letters that spell [p] in each of the following words:

& \text{acce\underline{p}t} && \text{esca\underline{p}e} && \text{worshi\underline{p}} && \text{occu\underline{p}y} \\& \quad \ \text{vcc} && \quad \ \text{vcv} && \qquad \text{vc\#} && \quad \ \text{vcv} \\\\& \text{as\underline{p}irin} && \text{whis\underline{p}er} && \text{ty\underline{p}e} && \text{unwra\underline{p}} \\& \text{vcc} && \quad \ \text{vcc} && \ \text{vcv} && \qquad \text{vc\#} \\\\& \text{\underline{p}e\underline{pp}er} && \text{cha\underline{p}ter} && \text{glim\underline{p}se} && \text{ba\underline{p}tize} \\& \quad\text{vcc} && \quad \text{vcc} && \quad \text{vcc} && \quad \text{vcc} \\\\& \text{sym\underline{p}tom} && \text{va\underline{p}or} && \text{friendship} && \text{ha\underline{pp}iness} \\& \ \ \text{vcc} && \ \ \text{vcv} && \qquad \quad \ \text{vc\#} && \ \ \text{vcc}

3. Find the closest vowel letter before the [p] in each word. Starting with that vowel, mark the pattern—either vcc, vcv, or vc#. In some of the words there is a consonant between the <\mathrm{p}> and the vowel.

There are 4 words with the pattern VCV.

There are 3 words with the pattern VC#.

There are 9 words with the pattern VCC.

4. Sort the sixteen words into the following matrix.

words with the pattern. . .
VCC VCV VC#
Words with a short vowel before the <\mathrm{p}>

accept

aspirin

pepper

symptom

whisper

chaper

glimpse

baptize

happiness

worship

friendship

unwrap

Words with a long vowel before the <\mathrm{p}>

escape

vapor

type

occupy

5. After a long vowel in the VCV pattern [p] is always spelled \underline{<p>}. After a short vowel in the VC# pattern [p] is always spelled \underline{<p>}. After a short vowel in the VCC pattern [p] is sometimes spelled \underline{<p>} and sometimes it is spelled <pp>.

6. Sort the words with the VCC pattern into the following two groups:

Words with [p] spelled ...
<pp> <\mathrm{p}>
pepper accept whisper baptize
happiness aspirin chapter
symptom glimpse

7. Be ready to discuss this question: Why does the seond [p] in pepper and the [p] in happiness have to be spelled <pp> while [p] is spelled <\mathrm{p}> in words like aspirin and glimpse?

Teaching Notes.

Item 2. If the first [p] in pepper confuses students, just point out that the instructions say to find the closest vowel before the [p] in the word, but there is no vowel before the first [p] in pepper, so they do not have to worry about it.

If questions come up about the base of the word aspirin, here is the story: The word aspirin was originally a German trademark made up from the first letters of the German chemical name Acetyl Spirsäure (acetyl salicylic acid) plus the chemical suffix -in, common at the end of chemical compounds. Pepper is neither something that peps nor something that is more pep; it comes to English through Latin and Greek, ultimately from the Sanskrit word for “pepper tree,” pippalam. Sanskrit is an ancient language of India. Escape analyzes to e\cancel{x} +s+cape. Its original meaning was “to get out of one's cape.” The prefix ex-undergoes some unusual assimilations (see AES, pp. 181-83). In some French and Italian adoptions, the <x> becomes <\mathrm{s}>: escape, escort, esplanade, espresso. Whisper is a single free base. Chapter comes ultimately from Latin capitulum (capit “head” + ulum “little”). Over the centuries the [l] changed to [r]. Notice that we still call chapter titles headings. Vapor comes from Latin vapor “steam, vapor.” It occurs in evaporate, which has another assimilated ex-: e\cancel{x} +vapor+ate.

Item 7, The point here is that in words like aspirin, glimpse, and the other five words with [p] spelled <\mathrm{p}> in a VCC pattern, there are other consonants to fill out the CC: the <\mathrm{s}> in aspirin, the <m> (and for good measure, the <\mathrm{s}>) in glimpse. In words like pepper and happiness we need the second <\mathrm{p}> to fill out the VCC pattern. Remind them that the need for a second consonant in VCC patterns is what causes us to twin final consonants in words like wrapper.

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Feb 23, 2012

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Apr 29, 2014
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