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8.22: Lesson Forty-six

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Review

1. Below you are given some words. For each word you are given a spelling feature -either the spelling of one of the sounds in the word or the presence of a silent final <e>. In the right hand column you should fill in the reason for the spelling feature - that is, the pattern or change that explains why the sound is spelled the way it is or the function of the silent final <e> in the word:

Word Spelling Feature Reason
example [p] = <\mathrm{p}> VCCle pattern
immediate [m] = <mm> Assimilation of in- to -im
knotty [t] = <\mathrm{tt}> Twinning
immense Silent final <e> Assimilation of in- to -im
shuttle [t] = <\mathrm{tt}> VCCle pattern
attempted [t] = <\mathrm{tt}> Assimilation of ad- to at-
occurred [k] = <cc> Assimilation of ob- to oc-
kidnapped [p] = <pp> Twinning
supporting [p] = <pp> Assimilation of sub- to sup-
lose Silent final <e> Marking long vowel and insulating <s>
subscribe Silent final <e> Marking long vowel in VCV pattern
maple Silent final <e> Marking long vowel in VCle pattern

2. Analyze each of the following words into its elements according to the formula you are given for each one. ‘Pr’ = ‘Prefix’, ‘FrSt’ = ‘Free Stem’, ‘BndSt’ = ‘Bound Stem’, and ‘Su’ = ‘Suffix’. Remember that some stems consist of just a base. Be sure to show any changes that occur:

Word Formula Analysis
unfriendly Pr + FrSt + Su un + friend + ly
thoughtful FrSt + Su thought + ful
unimpressive Pr^1 + Pr^2 + FrSt + Su un + i\cancel{n} + m + press + ive
obtained Pr + BndSt + Su ob + tain + ed
rightfully FrSt + Su^1 + Su^2 right + ful + ly
indebted Pr + FrSt + Su in + debt + ed
involved Pr + BndSt + Su in + volv\cancel{e} + ed
sufferers Pr + BndSt + Su^1 + Su^2 su\cancel{b} + f + fer + er + s
suffocate Pr + BndSt + Su su\cancel{b} + f + foc + ate
reappeared Pr^1 + Pr^2 + BndSt + Su re + a\cancel{d} + p + pear + ed
disputing Pr + BndSt + Su dis + pute + ing
sleepiest FrSt + Su^1 + Su^2 sleep + \cancel{y} + i + est

3. Combine the following elements into words. Be sure to show any changes that occur:

Elements Word
dis + ad + vantag\cancel{e} + ed disadvantaged
in + de + pend + ence independence
in + sist + ed insisted
in + su\cancel{\mathrm{b}} + f + fic\cancel{\mathrm{e}} + ient insufficient
un + wrap + ed unwrapped
ad + sign + ment + s assignments
in + sign + i + fic + ant insignificant
sub + gest + ion + s suggestions
ear + l\cancel{\mathrm{y}} + est earliest
ob + c + cas\cancel{\mathrm{e}} + ion + al occasional
de + light + ful + ly delightfully
in + l + lustr + at\cancel{\mathrm{e}} + ion illustration

Teaching Notes.

Items 1 and 2. Students may ask questions about final <e>'s on some of these bases: How do we know involved ‘should analyze to volve ’ rather than volv, which would not require a final <e> deletion - *in+volv+ed? Ditto with pute vs. put in disputing, and foc vs. foce in suffocate. We choose volve rather than volv because of involve, with the final <e>. We choose pute because of dispute. The base in suffocate means “neck, throat,” and there is no word with that base spelled with a final <e>, so we assume foc. (The root meaning behind suffocate is that of putting your hands under (sub-) one's throat.) In Item 2 the same line of argument follows: The base in occasional is the free base case. The fice in insufficient is due to suffice. Frankly, there is no compelling reason for choosing fic over fice in insignificant. There are two forms of the base: fice in, for example, suffice; and ficin, for instance, terrific. We choose fic as the simpler of the two choices, with no final <e> deletion required.

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1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Last Modified:

Apr 29, 2014
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