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# 9.13: Work with Bound Bases

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Work with Bound Bases

1. Elements are the smallest parts of written words that add meaning to the words.There are three kinds of elements: prefixes, bases, and suffixes.

Prefixes are elements that go at the front of words and (can\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{can}}\end{align*} / cannot) stand free as words. In the words unpainted and insisting un- and in- are prefixes.

Suffixes are elements that go at the end of words and (can\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{can}}\end{align*} / cannot) stand free as words. In the words unpainted and insisting -ed and -ing are suffixes.

Bases are elements that carry the core of the word's meaning. In the words unpainted and insisting paint and sist are bases. Free bases are bases that can stand free as words. Bound bases are bases that cannot stand free as words. Is the base in the word unpainted free or is it bound? Free. Is the base in the word insisting free or is it bound? Bound.

2. Each of the following words consists of a prefix and a bound base. You have worked with all of the prefixes in previous lessons. You should find five different bound bases.Analyze each word into its prefix and bound base, showing any assimilation:

Word = Prefix + Bound Base
accept = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + c + cept
effect = ex\begin{align*}\cancel{x}\end{align*} + f + fect
commit = com + mit
infect = in + fect
resume = re + sume
submit = sub + mit
affect = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + f + fect
subsume = sub + sume
except = ex + cept
concept = com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + cept
consume = com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + sume
include = in + clude
emit = ex\begin{align*}\cancel{x}\end{align*} + mit
conclude = com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + clude
assume = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + s + sume
exclude = ex + clude

3. Each of the following words consists of a prefix, a bound base, and a suffix. The bound bases are the same ones you just worked with. Some of the prefixes and suffixes may be new to you. Don't let that bother you. Analyze each word. Show any assimilation and other changes that occur when prefixes and suffixes get added to the bases:

Word = Prefix + Bound Base + Suffix
emitted = ex\begin{align*}\cancel{x}\end{align*} + mit + t + ed
intercepting = inter + cept + ing
secluded = se + clude\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed
transmitter = trans + mit + t + er
consumer = com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*}+n + sume\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + er
perfectly = per + fect + ly
affection = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*}+f + fect + ion
reception = re + cept + ion

Word Pyramids. The word hidden in this pyramid contains a bound base that you've worked with in this lesson. The base is four letters long. The hidden word also contains an assimilated prefix and a final <e> deletion. In steps two through four, analyze the stems so as to show the assimilation and <e> deletion.

Description of Stem Stem Analysis of Stem
1. Bound base sume
2. Prefix + bound base consume com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + sume
3. Prefix + bound base + suffix1\begin{align*}^1\end{align*} consumer com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + sume\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + er
4. Prefix + bound base + suffix1\begin{align*}^1\end{align*} + suffix2\begin{align*}^2\end{align*} consumers com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + sume\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + er + s

Teaching Notes.

Word Pyramids. This Pyramid can be difficult for some students. A good hint is a list of the four-letter bound bases worked with in this lesson: cept, fect, and sume. That's a powerful hint because there is no <p>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{p}>\end{align*}, <t>, or <f> in the Pyramid, which eliminates cept and fect. Another hint: Since the instructions indicate that there is <e>-deletion in the target word, the base probably ends with <e>, which narrows the field to sume. That leaves only <c>, <e>, <n>, <o>, <r>, and <s>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{s}>\end{align*} for the prefix and two suffixes.

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