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9.24: Some Words With < dd >

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Some Words With

1. Underline the letters that spell [d] in the following words:

\begin{align*} &\text{a\underline{{dd}}ition} && \text{a\underline{{dd}}ress} && \text{no\underline{{dd}}ing} && \text{hea\underline{{dd}}ress}\\ &\text{su\underline{{dd}}en} && \text{la\underline{{dd}}er} && \text{pu\underline{{dd}}ing} && \text{we\underline{{dd}}ing}\\ &\text{shre\underline{{dd}}ed} && \text{sa\underline{{dd}}en} && \text{re\underline{{dd}}er} && \text{go\underline{{dd}}ess}\\ &\text{e\underline{{dd}}y} && \text{o\underline{{dd}}est} && \text{forbi\underline{{dd}}en} && \text{go\underline{{dd}}aughter}\\ & \text{shu\underline{{dd}}er} && \text{mu\underline{{dd}}y} && \text{a\underline{{dd}}ict} && \text{gran\underline{{dd}}a\underline{{d}}}\end{align*}a\underline{{dd}}itionsu\underline{{dd}}enshre\underline{{dd}}ede\underline{{dd}}yshu\underline{{dd}}era\underline{{dd}}ressla\underline{{dd}}ersa\underline{{dd}}eno\underline{{dd}}estmu\underline{{dd}}yno\underline{{dd}}ingpu\underline{{dd}}ingre\underline{{dd}}erforbi\underline{{dd}}ena\underline{{dd}}icthea\underline{{dd}}resswe\underline{{dd}}inggo\underline{{dd}}essgo\underline{{dd}}aughtergran\underline{{dd}}a\underline{{d}}

2. Sometimes we get double consonants, like \begin{align*}<\mathrm{dd}>\end{align*}<dd>, because of simple addition: When an element that starts with a certain consonant comes right after an element that ends with that same consonant, we get double consonants.

In the twenty words above there are six words that have \begin{align*}<\mathrm{dd}>\end{align*}<dd> because of simple addition. Three of the six are compound words and three of them contain the prefix ad-. Write the six below and analyze them enough to show where the <d> comes from in each one.

Word = Analysis
addition = ad + dition
address = ad + dress
addict = ad + dict
headdress = head + dress
goddaughter = god + daughter
granddad = grand + dad

3. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has one vowel sound and ends CVC when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has two vowel sounds when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel if the stem ends CVC and has stress on its final vowel before and after you add the suffix.

4. Eight of the twenty words above have \begin{align*}<\mathrm{dd}>\end{align*}<dd> in them because of twinning. Find them and write them below. Then analyze each one to show how the twinning leads to the <d>:

Word = Analysis
shredded = shred + d + ed
sadden = sad + d + en
muddy = mud + d + y
nodding = nod + d + ing
redder = red + d + er
forbidden = forbid + d + en
wedding = wed + d + ing
goddess = god + d + ess

5. In the VCC pattern the vowel is usually short.

6. The six remaining words contain \begin{align*}<\mathrm{dd}>\end{align*} because of the VCC pattern. Write them in the blanks below and mark the VCC pattern in each one:

\begin{align*}& sudden && shudder && oddest\\ & eddy && ladder && pudding\end{align*}

Word Histories. The meanings of pudding and odd have changed greatly over the centuries. Originally a pudding was an animal's stomach, stuffed with seasoned meat and served as a sausage. In the \begin{align*}16^{\mathrm{th}}\end{align*} century pudding referred to any kind of food boiled in a cloth or bag. In the \begin{align*}17^{\mathrm{th}}\end{align*} century it began to be used to refer to the sweetened dessert we eat today. Odd comes from an old Scandinavian word that meant “triangle.” In time it came to mean “third,” because of the number of sides in a triangle. Then it came to mean any odd number— and finally it described anything unusual.

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. Dictionaries show headdress and goddaughter with [d-d] rather than [d], but in everyday informal speech they are probably most often pronounced with a single [d], as is granddad , even in the dictionaries.

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Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Jul 07, 2015
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