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10.2: Sometimes [d] is Spelled < ed >

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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1. You have learned that the suffix -ed adds the meanings “in the past” and “action completed” to verbs. You have also learned that it is pronounced different ways at the end of different verbs. For instance, in dished the -ed is pronounced [t], and in adopted it is pronounced [id]; in shoveled. is pronounced [d].

2. Pronounce each of the following past tense verbs carefully. Listen to how the -ed is pronounced in them. Then sort them into the three groups indicated below:

\begin{align*}& \text{radioed} && \text{elapsed} && \text{disappointed} && \text{knocked} \\ & \text{settled} && \text{huddled} && \text{collected} && \text{crowded} \\ & \text{divided} && \text{disturbed} && \text{attended} && \text{sobbed} \\ & \text{pronounced} && \text{daddressed} && \text{scribbled} && \text{employed} \\ & \text{grouped} && \text{governed} && \text{acknowledged} && \text{disarmed}\end{align*}

Words in which the -ed is pronounced ...
[t] [id] [d] [d]
pronounced divided radioed scribbled
grouped disappointed settled acknowledged
elapsed collected huddled sobbed
addressed attended disturbed employed
knocked crowded governed disarmed

3. In many past tense verbs -ed is pronounced [d]. So at the end of many past tense verbs [d] is spelled <ed>. So far you have seen three different ways of spelling [d]. They are <d>, \begin{align*}\underline{<dd>}\end{align*}, and <ed>.

4. In four words [d] is spelled <ld>. The word solder is pronounced [sodər]. Hundreds of years ago the <l> was pronounced, but not anymore. Solder comes from the Latin word solidus, which means “solid.” Our solid comes from this same solidus. So solder and solid are close relatives: When you solder something, you make it solid. And notice that you can hear the <l> in solid, though not in solder, so in solder [d] is spelled <ld>.

How is [d] spelled in could, should, and would? <ld>. For hundreds of years the <l> in these words was pronounced too, but in time people stopped pronouncing it.

5. Except for the words solder, could, should, and would, the sound [d] is spelled either <d>, \begin{align*}\underline{<dd>}\end{align*}, or <ed>.

Word Find. This Find contains twenty-two of the words you have been working with that contain the sound [d]. As you find them, sort them into the groups described below the Find:

Words with the sound [d] spelled
<d> \begin{align*}<\mathrm{dd}>\end{align*} <ed> <ld>
disturbed sudden disturbed would
development addict settled could
extend eddy favored should
idle forbidden employed
liquid middle
debt addition
bewilder wedding

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. The rationale behind the three pronunciations of -ed is given in the teaching notes to Book 2, Lesson 12.

Item 4. Over the years the spelling of could, should, and would have grown more similar, highlighting their parallel functions as auxiliary verbs:

Old English Middle English American English
c\begin{align*}\bar{\mathrm{u}}\end{align*}the couthe, coude could
sceolde scholde should
wolde wolde would

If anyone should ask, the word soldier is related to solder. They both come from the Latin word solidus “solid”, which also was used as the name for a Roman coin and later came to mean something like “pay”. A soldier was one who fought for pay – solid pay.

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