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# 13.3: Review of Twinning

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

1. The Rule of Simple Addition says that elements combine without change unless you know some special reason for making a change. One special reason is twinning:

Twinning Rule. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has one vowel sound in it when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel and the stem ends in the pattern CVC. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has more than one vowel sound in it when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel and the stem ends CVC only when there is stress on the last vowel of the stem before and after the suffix is added:

twin + ing = twin + n + ing = twinning

occur + ence = occur + r + ence = occurrence

2. Analyze each of the following words into free stem plus suffix. Show any cases of twinning in your analysis. Then answer the questions in the columns on the right. Assume that in any stems that have only one vowel sound, that vowel is stressed:

Word = Free Stem + Suffix Does the suffix start with a vowel? Does the stem end in the pattern CVC? Is there stress on the last vowel in the stem before you add the suffix? Does the stress stay on the last vowel of the stem after you add the suffix?
twinning = twin + n + ing Yes Yes Yes Yes
occurrence = occur + r + ence Yes Yes Yes Yes
kidnapper = kidnap + p + er Yes Yes Yes Yes
lucky = luck + y Yes No Yes Yes
committed = commit + t + ed Yes Yes Yes Yes
symbolic = symbol + ic Yes Yes No Yes
commitment = commit + ment No Yes Yes Yes
displayed = display + ed Yes No Yes Yes
limiting = limit + ing Yes Yes No No
exceeding = exceed + ing Yes No Yes Yes
excelled = excel + l + ed Yes Yes Yes Yes
cooking = cook + ing Yes No Yes Yes
repellant = repel + l + ant Yes Yes Yes Yes
compelling = compel + l + ing Yes Yes Yes Yes
logical = logic + al Yes Yes No No
informer = inform + er Yes No Yes Yes
submits = submit + s No Yes Yes Yes
exacting = exact + ing Yes No Yes Yes
recruiter = recruit + er Yes No Yes Yes

3. Look over the results of your work. You should find that for each word in which twinning occurred you have “Yes” in all four columns on the right. You should also find that for each word in which twinning did not occur you have at least one “No” in the columns on the right. If things did not work out that way, check over your work. If you get stuck, don't be afraid to ask for some help.

Twinning Rule. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has one vowel sound in it when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel and the stem ends in the pattern CVC. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has more than one vowel sound in it when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel and the stem ends in the pattern CVC only when there is stress on the last vowel of the stem before and after the suffix is added.

4. Combine the following free stems and suffixes. Show any cases of twinning:

Free stem + Suffix = Word
commit + t + ee = committee
complex + ity = complexity
remark + able = remarkable
logic + ian = logician
symbol + ism = symbolism
occur + ence = occurrence
refer + ence = reference
recruit + ing = recruiting
repel + ing = repelling
overlook + ed = overlooked
republic + an = republican
reveal + ing = revealing
compel + ing = compelling
resubmit + ed = resubmitted
kidnap + ing = kidnapping

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. The treatment of twinning is quite abbreviated here. For a more detailed and extended introduction to twinning, see Book 1, Lessons 34-37 (for twinning in stems with a single vowel sound) and Book 3, Lessons 45-47 (for twinning in stems with two or more vowel sounds). For more on twinning see AES, pp. 161-76.

Item 2. A sharp-eyed student may wonder why excellent has two <l>’s, in seeming contradiction of the Twinning Rule (since the stress shifts off of the second vowel in the stem when the suffix is added). Originally the free stem excel was often spelled excell. There were two <l>’s in the Latin source word. It was not until the 18th\begin{align*}18^\mathrm{th}\end{align*} or 19th\begin{align*}19^\mathrm{th}\end{align*} century that the spelling excel with one <l> became standard, part of a general tendency then to avoid ending free stems with more than one vowel sound with a double-<l>. It is possible that the spelling of excellent was standardize before the change of excell to excel. Or we could treat excellent as a case of the British tendency not to require stress on the second vowel of the stem when twinning: excel + l + ent. I would analyze excellent to excell + ent, positing excell as a bound stem in partnership with the free stem excel. For more on these sets of free and bound stems see AES, pp. 170-72.

Item 4. Re: complexity. Since final <x> always spells the complex sounds [ks], free stems that end in <x>, even though in terms of letters they seem to end CVC, in terms of sounds they end CVCC and thus do not twin. We never twin the letter <x>.

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