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# 15.2: Sometimes [s] is Spelled <ss>

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

1. The sound [s] is most often spelled <s>, but it is often spelled <ss>. Underline the <ss> spellings of [s] in the following words. Don't worry for now about the check mark:

aby\underline{ss}a\underline{ss}ociatebu\underline{ss}ingforeignne\underline{ss}di\underline{ss}atisfactionvenerablene\underline{ss}a\underline{ss}imilationcompre\underline{ss}neighborline\underline{ss}amba\underline{ss}adorproce\underline{ss}ormi\underline{ss}ileforgivene\underline{ss}care\underline{ss}ga\underline{ss}edmi\underline{ss}cheduledrece\underline{ss}fu\underline{ss}ylione\underline{ss}me\underline{ss}engerdangerousne\underline{ss}\underline{mi}sspellingdi\underline{ss}ensionplu\underline{ss}es\begin{align*}& \text{aby\underline{ss}} && \text{a\underline{ss}imilation} && \text{forgivene\underline{ss}} && \text{lione\underline{ss}} \\ & \text{a\underline{ss}ociate} \surd && \text{compre\underline{ss}} && \text{care\underline{ss}} && \text{me\underline{ss}enger} \\ & \text{bu\underline{ss}ing} && \text{neighborline\underline{ss}} && \text{ga\underline{ss}ed} && \text{dangerousne\underline{ss}} \\ & \text{foreignne\underline{ss}} && \text{amba\underline{ss}ador} && \text{mi\underline{ss}cheduled} && \text{\underline{mi}sspelling} \\ & \text{di\underline{ss}atisfaction} && \text{proce\underline{ss}or} && \text{rece\underline{ss}} && \text{di\underline{ss}ension} \\ & \text{venerablene\underline{ss}} && \text{mi\underline{ss}ile} && \text{fu\underline{ss}y} && \text{plu\underline{ss}es}\end{align*}

2. Two of the twenty-four words above have <ss> because of the full assimilation of the prefix ad- when it was added to a stem that started with <s>. List the two below in the Words column and then analyze them into prefix plus stem and show the full assimilation. As you do them check them off the list above:

Words Analysis: Prefix + Stem
associate ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + s + sociate
assimilation ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + s + similate

3. It is rare for <ss> to be due to twinning, for so few free bases end in a single <s>. But three of the twenty-four words above have <ss> due to twinning. List them below, analyze them to show the twinning, and cross them off of the list above:

Word Analysis: Stem + Suffix
bussing bus + s + ing
gassed gas + s + ed
plusses plus + s + es

4. Four of the twenty-four words have <ss> due to simple addition when the prefix dis- or mis- was added to a stem that started with <s>. List them below, analyze them to show the simple addition, and cross them off of the list above:

Word Analysis: Prefix + Stem
dissatisfaction dis + satisfaction
misscheduled mis + scheduled
misspelling mis + spelling
dissension dis + sension

5. Although the sound [s] is never spelled <ss> at the beginning of words or elements, it is often spelled <ss> at the very end of words. Ten of the twenty-four words above end with <ss>. Five of the end with the same suffix. List those five below; analyze each into stem plus suffix or suffixes, and cross them of the list above:

Word Analysis: Stem + Suffix(es)
foreignness foreign + ness
venerableness venerable + ness
neighborliness neighbor + ly\begin{align*}\cancel{y}\end{align*} + i + ness
forgiveness forgive + ness
dangerousness danger + ous + ness

6. The remaining five words that end in <ss> all have short vowels right in front of the [s] so the <ss> spelling makes a regular VCC pattern. Write those five into the table below:

abysscompresssuccesscaressrecess\begin{align*}& abyss && success && recess \\ & compress && caress\end{align*}

7. Also, there should be five words remaining on your list of twenty-four words that contain <ss> in the middle; all five have short vowels in front of the [s]. Write the five words below and mark the VCC pattern in each one:

ambassadorprocessormissilefussymessenger\begin{align*}& ambassador && missile && messenger \\ & processor && fussy \end{align*}

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. The suffix -ess in lioness is discussed in Lesson 4.

Item 2. The full assimilation of ad- is introduced in Lessons 13-14 of Book 4.

Item 3. The twinning of final consonants in short stems is introduced in Lessons 34-38 of Book 1.

Item 4. The prefixes mis- and dis- are introduced in Lessons 23-27 of Book 3.

Item 5. The suffix -ness is introduced in Lesson 20, Book 5.

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