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# 5.1: Review of Letters, Vowel Sounds, and Patterns

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

1. Vowel and Consonant Letters. The letters $<\mathrm{a}>$, <e>, $<\mathrm{i}>$ , and <o> are always vowels. The letters $<\mathrm{u}>$, <w>, and <y> are sometimes vowels and sometimes consonants. The other nineteen letters are always consonants.

The letter <y> is a consonant only when it spells the [y] sound it spells in words like yes and beyond. Everyplace else it's a vowel.

The letter $<\mathrm{u}>$ is a consonant only when it comes right after e letter <q> or when it spells the [w] sound as it does in language and quick. Everyplace else it's a vowel.

The letter <w> is usually a consonant. It is a vowel only when it helps $<\mathrm{a}>$, <e>, or <o> spell vowel sounds, as in fawn, flew, and cows.

2. Vowel Sounds.

The short vowel sounds: The long vowel sounds:
Short $<\mathrm{a}>$ [a] bat Long $<\mathrm{a}>$ $[\bar{\mathrm{a}}]$ bait
Short <e> [e] bet Long <e> $[\bar{\mathrm{e}}]$ beet
Short $<\mathrm{i}>$ [i] bit Long $<\mathrm{i}>$ $[\bar{\mathrm{i}}]$ bite
Short <o> [o] cot Long <o> $[\bar{\mathrm{o}}]$ boat
Short $<\mathrm{u}>$ [u] cut Long $<\mathrm{u}>$ $[\mathrm{y} \bar{\mathrm{u}}]$ coot
Dotted short $<\mathrm{u}>$ $[\dot{\mathrm{u}}]$ cook Long <yu> $[\mathrm{y}\bar{\mathrm{u}}]$ cute

3. Read the following words aloud and then fill in the blanks:

$& \text{inch} && \text{strike} && \text{fail} && \text{gather} && \text{loss} && \text{trust} \\& \text{put} && \text{roast} && \text{move} && \text{argue} && \text{sense} && \text{keep}$

The word with short $<\mathrm{a}>$, [a], is gather.

The word with long $<\mathrm{a}>, [\bar{\mathrm{a}}]$, is fail.

The word with short <e>, [e], is sense.

The word with long <e>, $[\bar{\mathrm{e}}]$, is keep.

The word with short $<\mathrm{i}>$, [i], is inch.

The word with long $<\mathrm{i}>$, $[\bar{\mathrm{i}}]$, is strike.

The word with short <o>, [o], is loss.

The word with long <o>, $[\bar{\mathrm{o}}]$, is roast.

The word with short $<\mathrm{u}>$, [u], is trust.

The word with dotted short $<\mathrm{u}>$, $[\dot{\mathrm{u}}]$, is put.

The word with long <oo>, $[\bar{\mathrm{u}}]$, is move.

The word with long <yu>, $[\mathrm{y} \bar{\mathrm{u}}]$, is argue.

3. $\mathrm{V's}$ and $\mathrm{C's}$. When we mark the vowel and consonant letters in words, we mark the vowels with a $v$ and the consonants with a $c$.

Mark the vowel and consonant letters in the following words:

$& \text{gather} && \text{mix} && \text{fail} && \text{settle} && \text{valley} \\& \text{cvccvc} && \text{cvc} && \text{cvvc} && \text{cvcccv} && \text{cvccvv} \\\\& \text{losses} && \text{glimpsed} && \text{quiz} && \text{thousand} && \text{eight} \\& \text{cvccvc} && \text{ccvcccvc} && \text{ccvc} && \text{ccvvcvcc} && \text{vvccc} \\\\& \text{draws} && \text{sense} && \text{youth} && \text{universe} && \text{effort} \\& \text{ccvvc} && \text{cvccv} && \text{cvvcc} && \text{vcvcvccv} && \text{vccvcc}$

4. VCC and VCV. In the pattern VCC the vowel is usually short. In the pattern VCV the first vowel is usually long:

$& \text{ask vs. ate} \\& \ \text{vcc} \qquad \text{vcv}$

In each of the following words a vowel is marked $v$. Mark the next two letters either $v$ or $c$ and sort the words into the matrix:

$& \text{doctor} && \text{settle} && \text{trust} && \text{genie } && \text{strike} && \text{sence} && \text{caged} \\& \ \text{vcc} && \text{vcc} && \ \text{vcc} && \ \text{vcv} && \ \text{vcv} && \text{vcc} && \ \text{vcv} \\\\& \text{fifty} && \text{problem} && \text{sentence} && \text{move} && \text{union} && \text{notice} && \text{dollar}\\& \ \text{vcc} && \ \text{vcc} && \ \text{vcc} && \ \text{vcv} && \text{vcv} && \ \text{vcv} && \ \text{vcc}$

Words with . . .
VCV VCC
Words with long vowels

genie

move

strike

union

notice

caged

Words with short vowels

doctor

fifty

settle

problem

trust

sentence

sense

dollar

In the pattern VCV the first vowel is usually long, but in the pattern VCC the vowel is usually short.

Word Pyramids. In a Word Pyramid you pile shorter words on top of longer ones to form a pyramid. We give you the bottom and longest word. Your job is to take one letter away from that word and rearrange the letters to form a new word that is one letter shorter than the one below it. You keep doing that until you get to the top.

In the Word Pyramid below,each word must contain the sound [t] spelled <t>. The only three-letter word you can make out of vote is toe, which does contain <t> and goes right above vote. The only two-letter word you can make from toe is to. The only one-letter word with <t>, is $T$, which is short for “tee shirt” and is also used in the phrase, “My new bicycle suits me to a $T$.” Thus, the filled-out Pyramid would look like the following:

In the following Pyramid each word must contain a long vowel sound:

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. Vowel and consonant letters are introduced in Book 1, Lessons 1-5.

Items 2 and 3. The short and long $<\mathrm{a}>$ and <e> sounds are introduced in Book 1, Lessons 20-21. Short and long $<\mathrm{i}>$ and <o> are introduced in Book 1, Lesson 22. The four $<\mathrm{u}>$ sounds are introduced in Book 1, Lesson 23. Additional information is provided in the Teaching Notes to those lessons as well as references to additional background information.

Item 4. The VCV and VCC patterns are introduced in Book 1, Lessons 24-25.

Word Pyramids. There are different legitimate solutions to most Word Pyramids. The minimum requirements are that each word used must be listed in a reputable dictionary and must contain the target spelling feature. For Pyramids as complex as this one, you might consider having the students work in groups, with one (or two) members of the group looking up candidate words in the biggest dictionary available.

Notices contains the following words: $6-$letters, in addition to nicest: conies, cosine, oscine; noetic, notice ; other $5-$letters: cions, icons, scion; cites; cones, scone; eosin;notes, steno, stone, tones; stein, tines; stoic; other $4-$letters: cion, icon; cite; cone; cote; ices; ions; nice; noes, nose, sone; note, tone; otic; sine; site, ties; tine; toes; $3-$letters: eon; ice; ion; sei; tie; toe; $2-$letter: no, si, so, ti, to; $1-$letter: o, t, i, c, e . Dictionaries treat all letters as if they were words, giving their pronunciations, plural forms, and parts of speech. The spoken names of most letters of the alphabet contain a long vowel sound.

## Subjects:

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

## Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Jan 26, 2015
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