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Chapter 8: Human Genetics and Biotechnology

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Human Genetics and Biotechnology


Lesson 8.1: Human Chromosomes and Genes

8.1.1 The Human Genome

8.1.2 Chromosomes and Genes

  • Autosomes
  • Sex Chromosomes
  • Human Genes

8.1.3 Linkage

  • Sex-Linked Genes
  • Linkage Maps

Lesson 8.2: Human Inheritance

8.2.1 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans

  • Autosomal Traits
  • Sex-Linked Traits
  • Pedigree Analysis Activity

8.2.2 Non-Mendelian Inheritance

  • Multiple Allele Traits
  • Polygenic Traits
  • Pleiotropy
  • Epistasis

8.2.3 Genetic Disorders

  • Genetic Disorders Caused by Mutations
  • Chromosomal Disorders
  • Diagnosing Genetic Disorders
  • KQED: Treating Genetic Disorders

Lesson 8.3: Biotechnology

8.3.1 Biotechnology Methods

  • Gene Cloning
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction

8.3.2 Applications of Biotechnology

  • Applications in Medicine
  • KQED: Pharmacogenomics
  • KQED: Synthetic Biology
  • Applications in Agriculture

8.3.3 Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues

Pacing the Lessons

Use the Class Periods per Lesson table below as a guide for the time required to teach the lessons of this chapter.

Lesson Number of Class Periods
8.1 Human Chromosomes and Genes 1.5
8.2 Human Inheritance 2.5
8.3 Biotechnology 1.5
  • Class periods are assumed to be 60 minutes long.

Online Resources

See the following Web sites for appropriate laboratory activities:

1. Students will determine their own phenotypes and genotypes for several readily observable traits and calculate the percentage of the class with each trait. (Lesson 8.2)

2. This lab is similar to the lab described above but also includes a component in which students work with pedigrees. (Lesson 8.2)

3. In this lab, students will solve problems of identification based on blood type. (Lesson 8.2)

4. This laboratory leads students through gene cloning techniques. It offers both wet lab and virtual options. (Lesson 8.3)

5. This virtual PCR lab comes complete with sound effects. (Lesson 8.3)

These Web sites may also be helpful:

1. This Web site links you and your students to the history, achievements, and current undertakings of the Human Genome Research Project.

2. This curriculum supplement covers the basics of human genetics and its relationship to disease. It includes several student activities.

4. Go to this URL for an animation of restriction enzyme digestion of plasmid DNA and subsequent ligation of the sticky ends.

5. This Web site has an animation of the polymerase chain reaction.

6. At this URL, students can see an animation showing how to make a transgenic plant.

Chapter Outline

Chapter Summary

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