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Chapter 21: Introduction to the Human Body: Bones, Muscles, and Skin

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2014. www.shutterstock.com. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.

Introduction to the Human Body: Bones, Muscles, and Skin


Lesson 21.1: Organization of the Human Body

21.1.1 Levels of Organization

  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs and Organ Systems

21.1.2 A Well-Oiled Machine

  • Maintaining Homeostasis
  • Failure of Homeostasis

Lesson 21.2: The Skeletal System

21.2.1 The Skeleton

21.2.2 Structure of Bones

  • Bone Cells
  • Bone Tissues

21.2.3 Growth and Development of Bones

21.2.4 Joints

  • Types of Joints
  • Movable Joints

21.2.5 Skeletal System Problems

Lesson 21.3: The Muscular System

21.3.1 What are Muscles?

  • Smooth Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Cardiac Muscle

21.3.2 Skeletal Muscles

  • Structure of Skeletal Muscles
  • Skeletal Muscles and Bones
  • Use It or Lose It

21.3.3 Muscle Contraction

  • Structure of Muscle Fibers
  • Sliding Filament Theory
  • Muscles and Nerves

Lesson 21.4: The Integumentary System

21.4.1 The Skin

  • Epidermis
  • Dermis
  • Functions of the Skin
  • Skin Problems

21.4.2 Nails and Hair

  • Nails
  • Hair

Pacing the Lessons

Use the Class Periods per Lesson table below as a guide for the time required to teach the lessons of this chapter.

Lesson Number of Class Periods
21.1 Organization of the Human Body 1.0
21.2 The Skeletal System 2.0
21.3 The Muscular System 1.5
21.4 The Integumentary System 1.0
  • Class periods are assumed to be 60 minutes long.

Online Resources

See the following Web sites for appropriate laboratory activities:

1. This lab will teach students how to identify compact and spongy bone tissues and how to classify bones by shape. Quizzes are provided so students can test their comprehension as they work through the lab. (Lesson 21.2)

2. In this lab, students will investigate the effects of temperature and fatigue on muscle contractions, using themselves as study subjects. (Lesson 21.3)

These Web sites may also be helpful:

1. This URL has additional information about human body systems, as well as images of tissues and individual organ systems.

2. This URL links to lecture notes, Web pages, and PowerPoint presentations on the human body, including tissue types and body systems.

3. This Web site has several classroom activities on the skin.

Chapter Outline

Chapter Summary

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