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Chapter 7: TE Molecular Genetics: From DNA to Proteins

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

User:PublicDomainPictures/Pixabay. pixabay.com/en/dna-biology-medicine-gene-163466/. Public Domain.

Molecular Genetics: From DNA to Proteins


Lesson 7.1: DNA and RNA

7.1.1 Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

7.1.2 DNA

  • Griffith Searches for the Genetic Material
  • Avery’s Team Makes a Major Contribution
  • Hershey and Chase Seal the Deal
  • Chargaff Writes the Rules
  • The Double Helix
  • DNA Replication

7.1.3 RNA

  • RNA vs. DNA
  • Types of RNA

Lesson 7.2: Protein Synthesis

7.2.1 Transcription

  • Steps of Transcription
  • Processing mRNA

7.2.2 The Genetic Code

  • Reading the Genetic Code
  • Characteristics of the Genetic Code

7.2.3 Translation

Lesson 7.3: Mutation

7.3.1 Causes of Mutation

7.3.2 Types of Mutations

  • Chromosomal Alterations
  • Point Mutations
  • Frameshift Mutations

7.3.3 Effects of Mutations

  • Beneficial Mutations
  • Harmful Mutations

Lesson 7.4: Regulation of Gene Expression

7.4.1 How Gene Expression Is Regulated

7.4.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation

  • The Role of Operons
  • The Lac Operon

7.4.3 Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

  • The TATA Box
  • Regulation During Development
  • Gene Regulation and Cancer

Pacing the Lessons

Use the Class Periods per Lesson table below as a guide for the time required to teach the lessons of this chapter.

Lesson Number of Class Periods
7.1 DNA and RNA 1.5
7.2 Protein Synthesis 2.0
7.3 Mutation 1.0
7.4 Regulation of Gene Expression 1.0
  • Class periods are assumed to be 60 minutes long.

Online Resources

The following labs are suitable for this chapter and are available online:

1. Students can extract their own DNA (from cheek cells) and learn about DNA structure and replication. (Lesson 7.1)

2. Students will use simple paper models to simulate DNA transcription and translation. (Lesson 7.2)

3. Groups of students will investigate a hypothetical anthrax case by modeling DNA sequencing. They will focus on the role of mutations in the identification of DNA samples. The lab uses online videos and animations. (Lessons 7.1 and 7.3)

4. Students will transcribe and translate a DNA sequence containing a mutation. Then they will perform a BLAST search to determine the protein that is encoded in the sequence. They will also infer which disease is caused by the protein. (Lessons 7.1, 7.2, 7.3)

5. In this wet lab, students will investigate how genes are regulated during development by observing differential gene expression in genetically modified plants. The Web site provides extensive pre- and post-lab materials, worksheets, links, and other resources. The lab is suitable for AP biology students. (Lesson 7.4)

These Web sites may also be helpful:

1. This Web page provides many relevant links for activities, articles, online animations, quizzes, and other materials on molecular genetics.

2. This Web site from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory provides animations, photographs, biographical sketches, problems, and links for students to learn about and explore the molecules of genetics.

Chapter Outline

Chapter Summary

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