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Chapter 9: Covalent Bonding

Created by: CK-12

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Chapter Overview

Covalent bonding occurs between two atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons in order to satisfy the octet rule. Bond formation releases energy, while the breaking of a covalent bond absorbs energy. Lewis electron dot structures are drawn in order to visualize the bonding patterns and shapes of molecules. Valence-shell electron pair repulsion theory describes the electron domain geometries and resultant molecular geometries of molecules. Covalent bonds may be either polar or nonpolar, depending on the equality of sharing of valence electrons. Molecular polarity is dependent on bond polarity and on molecular geometry. Intermolecular forces are those that exist between molecules and are responsible for physical state, melting points, and boiling points. Valence bond theory describes covalent bonds occurring as a result of overlap of atomic orbitals. Some atomic orbitals must undergo hybridization in order to generate the necessary types of orbitals formed in certain molecules.

Online Resources

See the following Web sites for appropriate activities:

Pacing the Lessons

Lesson Class Period(s) (60 min)
9.1 Lewis Electron Dot Structures 3-4
9.2 Molecular Geometry 1-2
9.3 Polarity and Intermolecular Forces 2-3
9.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals 1-2

Chemistry Concepts

The table below matches each lesson from the flexbook to the Chemistry Concepts.

Flexbook Lesson Chemistry Concepts
9.1 Lewis Electron Dot Structures 9.1 – 9.9
9.2 Molecular Geometry 9.10 – 9.12
9.3 Polarity and Intermolecular Forces 9.13 – 9.16
9.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals 9.17 – 9.20

Chapter Outline

Chapter Summary

Image Attributions


Difficulty Level:

At Grade


Date Created:

Jul 25, 2014

Last Modified:

Oct 20, 2014
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