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24.8: Multimedia Resources for Chapter 24

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

Copy and distribute the lesson worksheets. Ask students to complete the worksheets alone or in pairs as a review of lesson content.

Nuclear Notation Worksheet

CK12 Foundation Chemistry

Name ________________________________ Date ______________

Background

Each element has one or more atoms associated with it. Every atom of a particular element has the same number of protons. A particular atom of an element does not have to have the same number of neutrons. A group of atoms of an element must all have the same number of protons but they may have several different numbers of neutrons. The atomic number of an atom indicates the number of protons in its nucleus and the mass number of an atom indicates the total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. Atoms with the same atomic number but a different mass number are called isotopes.

Nuclear notation is a shorthand way of writing information about a particular atom. An example of the accepted form of nuclear notation is shown below.

The large “X” represents the symbol for the element. The mass number is represented in the image by the letter “A” and is positioned as a superscript preceding the X. The atomic number is represented by the letter “Z” and is positioned as a subscript preceding the X.

Here is an example of this notation using a carbon isotope that contains six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus.

We see a carbon atom represented with an atomic number of 6, showing this atom, like all carbon atoms, has 6 protons in the nucleus. The mass number of 12 shows the nucleus contains a total of 12 protons and neutrons. Since we know the carbon atom has 6 protons, a subtraction of the atomic number from the mass number indicates the nucleus contains 6 neutrons.

Another isotope of carbon is a carbon nucleus that contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons. The nuclear notation for this isotope of carbon appears below.

In the nuclear notation for this isotope of carbon, the mass number is 2 greater because the nucleus contains 2 more neutrons and the same number of protons.

Exercises

1. An atom contains 3 protons, 3 neutrons, and 3 electrons. What is its atomic number?

2. An atom contains 3 protons, 3 neutrons, and 3 electrons. What is its mass number?

3. Indicate the number of protons, neutrons, and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol.

Number of protons = _____

Number of neutrons = _____

Mass number = _____

4. Indicate the number of protons, neutrons, and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol.

Number of protons = _____

Number of neutrons = _____

Mass number = _____

5. Indicate the number of protons, neutrons, and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol.

Number of protons = _____

Number of neutrons = _____

Mass number = _____

6. Indicate the number of protons, neutrons, and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol.

Number of protons = _____

Number of neutrons = _____

Mass number = _____

7. Write the nuclear symbol for an isotope of neon whose nucleus contains 10 protons and 10 neutrons.

8. Write the nuclear symbol for an isotope of bromine whose nucleus contains 35 protons and 45 neuterons.

Nuclear Equations Worksheet

CK-12 Foundation Chemistry

Name______________________ Date_________

1.

\begin{align*} \text \ \begin{matrix} {\textbf 1} \\ {\textbf 0} \end{matrix}{\textbf n}\end{align*}

Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. __________

2.

\begin{align*} \text \ \begin{matrix} {\textbf 1} \\ {\textbf 1} \end{matrix}{\textbf p}\end{align*}

Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. __________

3.

\begin{align*} \text \ \begin{matrix} {\textbf 0} \\ {\textbf {-1}} \end{matrix}{\textbf e}\end{align*}

Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. __________

4.

\begin{align*} \text \ \begin{matrix} {\textbf 4} \\ {\textbf 2} \end{matrix} \alpha \end{align*}

Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. __________

5.

\begin{align*} \text \ \begin{matrix} {\textbf 0} \\ {\textbf {-1}} \end{matrix} \beta \end{align*}

Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. __________

In questions 6 – 10, a single nuclear particle is missing. Write the complete nuclear symbol for the missing particle.

6. . \begin{align*}\begin{matrix}28 \\ 13 \end{matrix} Al \rightarrow \begin{matrix}26 \\ 12 \end{matrix} Mg \ + \ ? \end{align*}

7. \begin{align*} \begin{matrix} 210 \\ 84 \end{matrix} Po \rightarrow \begin{matrix} 210 \\ 85 \end{matrix} At \ + \ ? \end{align*}

8. \begin{align*} \begin{matrix} 209 \\ 83 \end{matrix} Bi \rightarrow \begin{matrix} 4 \\ 2 \end{matrix} He \ + \ ? \end{align*}

9. \begin{align*} \begin{matrix} 242 \\ 96 \end{matrix} Cm + \begin{matrix} 12 \\ 6 \end{matrix} C \rightarrow 3 \begin{matrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{matrix} n \ + \ ?\end{align*}

10. \begin{align*}\begin{matrix} 223 \\ 87 \end{matrix} Fr \ + \ ? \rightarrow \begin{matrix} 226 \\ 88 \end{matrix} Ra + \begin{matrix} 1 \\ 1 \end{matrix} H\end{align*}

Multiple Choice

11. An isotope of bismuth, \begin{align*}^{209}Bi\end{align*}, is bombarded with a proton. The produce of the ensuing reaction is an isotope of element X and two neutrons. What is the atomic number of this isotope of element X?

A. 82
B. 83
C. 84
D. 85
E. None of these.

12. An isotope of bismuth, \begin{align*}^{209}Bi\end{align*}, is bombarded with a proton. The produce of the ensuing reaction is an isotope of element X and two neutrons. What is the mass number of this isotope of element X?

A. 208
B. 209
C. 210
D. 211
E. None of these.

13. Which of the following particles completes this equation?

\begin{align*}^{238}U + ^4He \ \rightarrow \ ^{241}Pu \ + \ ?\end{align*}
A. beta
B. alpha
C. proton
D. neutron
E. None of these.

14. Which of the following particles completes this equation?

\begin{align*}^{241}Pu \ \rightarrow \ ^{241}Am \ + \ ?\end{align*}
A. beta
B. alpha
C. proton
D. neutron
E. None of these.

15. Which of the following particles completes this equation?

\begin{align*}^{10}B \ \rightarrow \ ^6Li \ + \ ?\end{align*}
A. beta
B. alpha
C. proton
D. neutron
E. None of these.

16. If \begin{align*}^{234}Th\end{align*} undergoes beta decay, which of the following will be the resultant particle?

A. \begin{align*}^{234}Ra\end{align*}
B. \begin{align*}^{230}Th\end{align*}
C. \begin{align*}^{234}Pa\end{align*}
D. \begin{align*}^{235}U\end{align*}
E. None of these.

17. \begin{align*}^{234}U\end{align*} undergoes alpha decay and the resultant particle undergoes beta decay. What is the final particle after both decays?

A. \begin{align*}^{236}Np\end{align*}
B. \begin{align*}^{230}Pa\end{align*}
C. \begin{align*}^{232}Ac\end{align*}
D. \begin{align*}^{239}Np\end{align*}
E. \begin{align*}^{233}Pa\end{align*}

18. Write the nuclear equations for the decay of \begin{align*}^{210}Po\end{align*} if it undergoes two consecutive alpha decays followed by a beta decay.

CK12 Foundation Chemistry

Name ________________________________ Date ______________

1. What does it mean when an element is radioactive?

A. it means that some of the atoms of the element emit radiation
B. it means that some of the atoms of the element are changing into atoms of different elements
C. it means that some of the atoms of the element are becoming more stable
D. All of the above are true.

2. Stable systems have more potential energy than unstable systems.

A. True
B. False

3. Gamma rays are emitted along with alpha and beta radiation. What do gamma rays account for?

A. lost mass
B. lost charge
C. lost energy
D. All of the above.

4. Within a nuclear reactor, the purpose of the moderator is to

A. absorb neutrons in the reactor core
B. absorb neutrons in the outer containment structure
C. slow down neutrons in the reactor core
D. slow down neutrons in the outer containment structure

5. Which type of radiation is most similar to high-energy x-rays?

A. alpha
B. beta
C. neutron
D. gamma

6. Which of the noble gases is naturally radioactive and has no stable isotopes?

A. Ar
B. Kr
C. Xe
D. Rn

7. Which of the following best describes the operation of a cyclotron?

A. an uncharged particle is accelerated to great speeds by a fast moving current of air
B. a charged particle is accelerated by changing charges in a series of pipes or tubes
C. an uncharged particle is accelerated by alternating charges on adjacent Dees.
D. a charged particle is accelerated by alternating charges on adjacent Dees while being subjected to a magnetic field which causes the particle to move in a curved path.

8. Which of the following changes occurs in a nucleus when a positron is given off?

A. a proton is produced
B. a neutron is lost
C. a helium-4 nucleus is lost
D. a neutron is split into a proton and an electron
E. a neutron is produced

9. Which of the following particles could not be accelerated in a linear accelerator?

A. proton
B. neutron
C. helium nucleus
D. electron
E. All of the particles listed above could be accelerated in a linear accelerator.

10. Which of the following statements is false concerning nuclear radiation?

A. exposure to radiation will always make you radioactive
B. solar radiation is more dangerous than nuclear radiation
C. radiation is always good for you
D. man is responsible for all radiation
E. All of the above are false.

11. An unknown type of radiation was giving a reading on a Geiger counter of 2000 counts per second. When a piece of paper was placed between the source and Geiger counter, the reading dropped to 50 counts per second. Based on this observation, you could conclude that the radiation was mostly

A. alpha
B. beta
C. gamma
D. x-ray
E. insufficient data

12. Nuclear radiation was discovered by

A. Albert Einstein
B. Ernest Rutherford
C. Henri Becquerel
D. Marie Curie
E. Pierre Curie

13. \begin{align*}20.0~grams\end{align*} of a radioactive element is prepared in a nuclear reactor. The half-life of the isotope is \begin{align*}3.0 days\end{align*}. How many days will it take before there is only \begin{align*}2.50~grams\end{align*} of the substance remaining?

A. \begin{align*}1.5~days\end{align*}
B. \begin{align*}3.0~days\end{align*}
C. \begin{align*}6.0~days\end{align*}
D. \begin{align*}9.0~days\end{align*}
E. \begin{align*}12~days\end{align*}

14. Element X has only two isotopes. One of the isotopes has a mass number of \begin{align*}190\end{align*} and the other has a mass number of \begin{align*}194\end{align*}. If the atomic mass of the element is \begin{align*}193.6\end{align*}, which of the two isotopes is most commonly found in nature?

A. \begin{align*}190\end{align*}
B. \begin{align*}194\end{align*}
C. \begin{align*}193.6~days\end{align*}
D. The two isotopes are equally common.
E. Insufficient data to determine.

15. A \begin{align*}12.0~gram\end{align*} sample of the isotope \begin{align*}^{131}I\end{align*} decays to \begin{align*}1.5~grams\end{align*} in \begin{align*}24.0~days\end{align*}. What is the half-life of this isotope?

A. \begin{align*}8.0~days\end{align*}
B. \begin{align*}16~days\end{align*}
C. \begin{align*}20.~days\end{align*}
D. \begin{align*}24~days\end{align*}
E. None of these.

16. Define the following terms.

A. mass defect

B. chain reaction

C. critical mass

D. fission

E. fusion

F. beta decay

G. ionizing power

H. binding energy

• The worksheet answer keys are available upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request the worksheet answer keys.

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