# 2.3: Activities and Answer Keys

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Activity 1-1: Pathway of Blood through Your Body

### PLAN

Summary Students construct a model of the heart showing the two pump pathway of blood through the body and lungs. To construct the model, they use cups to represent the heart chambers. They use straws, yarn, and thread to represent vessels. They use balloons to represent the lungs. And they use seeds to represent the cells.

Objectives

Students:

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify the number of heart chambers.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} describe the separation of blood between the two sides of the heart.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} compare and contrast oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} explain where blood is oxygenated and deoxygenated.

Student Materials

• Activity Report

Per team

• Paper cups \begin{align*}(4)\end{align*}; Straw; Glue; Paper towels; Colored pencils, pens, or paint (blue and red); Tape; Balloon (white); Colored thread (blue and red); Colored yarn (blue and red, \begin{align*}2\end{align*} pieces \begin{align*}20\;\mathrm{cm}\end{align*} each); Lima beans (\begin{align*}3\end{align*} or \begin{align*}4\end{align*}); Scissors; Ruler (metric)

Teacher Materials

• Since your students will be working with glue, you may want to provide paper or plastic to protect the table tops.
• Charts and other visuals showing the heart and circulation of blood
• Illustrations of blood vessels

Collect large paper cups, straws, red and blue colored pencils, yarn, thread, and dry lima beans.

Have a completed model for demonstration and/or reference after the activity is completed.

Determine where completed models will be stored/displayed.

Provide paper or plastic to protect the table tops.

Gather and organize the student materials listed.

Estimated Time One or two \begin{align*}50-\mathrm{minute}\end{align*} periods

Interdisciplinary Connection

Art This activity could be completed in an art class before starting the unit.

Prerequisite and Background Information

This is an excellent introductory activity. It is recommended that this activity be done at the beginning of the unit. Students do not need any prior knowledge to complete this activity.

### IMPLEMENT

This activity can be done as a whole-class demonstration or in smaller groups.

If you choose to implement this activity in small groups, divide the class into pairs or groups of \begin{align*}3\end{align*} students.

Steps 1-3

Refer students to Figure 1.2 to see an early stage of the model they will build.

Steps 4-6

Refer students to Figure 1.3 to see what the model should look like at this stage. Make sure they know the significance of the colored yarn.

Steps 7-13

The completed model will look like the illustration in Figure 1.4.

Steps 14-16

Monitor students to make sure they are able to explain, in their illustration and their writing, how the blood would flow through their models.

Conclude Activity 1-1 by making sure students follow the cleanup procedures. Make sure the models are stored safely. The constructed models should be available to your students for reference throughout the unit.

• Encourage students to use their models to illustrate their working knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the heart. The students' models will help them learn about the vessels and the pathway of blood.
• Monitor the time to make sure there is sufficient time for cleanup.

### ASSESS

Use the construction of the heart model and the written responses to the Activity Report to assess if students can:

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} locate and describe the function of the four chambers of the heart.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} define the terms “oxygenated” and “deoxygenated.”

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify the region of the heart that contains oxygenated blood.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify the region of the heart that contains deoxygenated blood.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} explain the location and function of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, and blood capillaries.

Extend Activity 1-1 by asking students to make a working model of the heart that demonstrates the two-pump pathway. Use empty liquid detergent bottles or water bottles with nozzle tops. Use scissors to make holes at the bottom of the bottles. Insert tubing as vessels into the holes you made in the bottles. This is an open-ended activity that can be done now or later in the unit as students gain more knowledge about blood vessels—their structure and I function.

## Activity 1-1: Pathway of Blood through Your Body - Activity Report Answer Key

• Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
1. Place the model in front of you, with the two blue cups on your left and the two red cups on your right. Set the balloon on top of the cups and position the beans in front of the cups. This is the position of the circulatory system as it would be in a person facing you.
2. Each cup represents a heart chamber. The blood enters the heart through each of the upper chambers and flows into the corresponding lower chambers before leaving the heart. How many chambers make up the human heart?
3. The red heart chambers and vessels contain blood high in oxygen content. The blue heart chambers and vessels contain blood poor in oxygen content. You may remember that the removal of water is called dehydration and decaffeinated coffee is coffee with the caffeine removed. If the blood, which is high in oxygen content is called oxygenated blood then what would you call the blood which has had oxygen removed for use by the cells?
4. Based upon the structure of your model, does blood from the blue (right) side of the heart mix with the blood from the red (left) side of the heart?
5. Look at your model and determine where oxygen is added and removed.

Bonus Question: The threads, yarn, and straws represent the vessels. The straws and yarn represent arteries and veins, and the threads represent the capillaries. Label these vessels correctly on your diagram and be prepared to give reasons for your answers.

A suggested response will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org.

Explain why a person living on a mountain at high altitude has a greater number of red blood cells than a person living at sea level.

What Do You Think?

Some athletes use an illegal procedure called “blood doping.” Weeks before an important event they have some of their own blood withdrawn and placed in cold storage. Their bodies make new red blood cells to replace the ones that were removed. The athletes have the stored blood transfused back into their bodies just before the event. This increases the number of new red blood cells in their blood and the amount of oxygen they are able to take up with each breath. Why do you think an athlete might do this? Do you think blood doping should be an illegal procedure? Why or why not?

In what other ways does your body keep germs and dirt out? What other protectors does your body have?

What Do You Think?

Donations of blood and body organs are needed to save the lives of injured or sick people. Blood can be stored for only a few weeks. So new blood is constantly needed. Organs of healthy people who die prematurely could save the lives of others. At the present time not enough donations of blood and body organs are made available to meet the need. How do you think the medical profession could educate people about the importance of donations of blood and organs?

What is a bruise? Why does it change color?

## Activity 1-2: Composition of Blood

### PLAN

Summary Students create a model of the composition of whole blood using a measured quantity of various sizes of beans and peas to represent the blood cells and a measured quantity of liquids to represent the plasma.

Objectives

Students:

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} demonstrate the relative volumes of the components of blood.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} demonstrate the relative size differences among blood cells.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} name the three types of blood cells and tell what they do.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} explain how homeostasis of the body can be disrupted.

Student Materials

• Activity Report

Per Team

• \begin{align*}2\end{align*} Beakers, \begin{align*}1000\;\mathrm{ml}\end{align*}, or clear plastic containers; \begin{align*}3\end{align*} Containers, one of which is at least \begin{align*}500\;\mathrm{ml}\end{align*} in capacity; Red beans, dried \begin{align*}(800)\end{align*}; White beans, dried, about twice the size of the red beans \begin{align*}(10)\end{align*}; Split peas, dried, about half the size of the red beans \begin{align*}(75)\end{align*}; Salt; Yellow food coloring; Raw egg; Water; Small pieces of paper towel; \begin{align*}2\end{align*} Graduated cylinders, \begin{align*}25\end{align*} or \begin{align*}50\;\mathrm{ml}\end{align*} and \begin{align*}500\;\mathrm{ml}\end{align*}

Teacher Materials

• Charts and other visuals showing the composition and characteristics of blood
• Resources relating to blood diseases and disorders

Assemble small bags or other containers filled with the correct numbers of beans and peas needed for each group.

Estimated Time One \begin{align*}50-\mathrm{minute}\end{align*} period

Interdisciplinary Connection

Math Consider using this lab with the math teacher (calculation of percents, tables, and graphs).

Prerequisites and Background Information

Students should know how to use a graduated cylinder and how to calculate percentages.

### IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 1-2 by discussing what a model is and the importance of building and using models.

Procedure A-Modeling the Solid Portion of Blood

Steps 1-3

Provide small bags or other containers filled with the correct numbers of beans and peas needed for each group. Make sure students label the bags correctly.

• Red beans labeled “Red Blood Cells”
• Split peas labeled “Platelets”
• White beans labeled “White Blood Cells”

Pass out Activity 1-2 Activity Reports. Make sure students are filling out their reports as they work through the procedures.

Procedure B-Modeling the Liquid Portion of Blood

Steps 1-3

Make sure students are labeling the containers correctly as they follow Steps 1-3.

• Make sure the water is in a clean \begin{align*}1000\;\mathrm{ml}\end{align*} container. Sometimes students want to put the water in the solid portion container. Avoid this mistake.
• The raw egg should be placed in a paper cup labeled “Proteins and Fats.”
• The pinch of salt should be placed in a paper cup labeled “Minerals, Nutrients, and Wastes.” Then make sure students add the yellow food coloring to the salt in this cup.
• Again, make sure students add the materials representing the liquid model to the container of water—not to the container of materials representing the solid portion of blood. They should have two separate containers at this point—model of solid portion of blood and model of liquid portion of block Make sure students are answering the questions on their Activity Reports as they progress.

Procedure C-What can you learn from your model?

Steps 1-2

Guide students as they compare their models to real blood.

• After completing the activity, remind students to return the peas and beans to small bags in preparation for the next class.
• Remind students NOT to mix the contents of the two beakers.
• Monitor time to allow for cleanup.

Conclude Activity 1-2 by discussing students' responses to the scenarios in Step 2. Allow students time to complete their Activity Report or assign their completion.

### ASSESS

Use the written responses to the Activity Report to assess if students can

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify the three types of blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets).

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} explain the use of the red blood cells to transport oxygen.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} explain the importance of white blood cells to fight infections and diseases.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} describe how the platelets function in the clotting of blood.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} indicate the relative abundance of red blood cells \begin{align*}(94 \%)\end{align*}, white blood cells \begin{align*}(1 \%)\end{align*}, and platelets \begin{align*}(5 \%)\end{align*}.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} demonstrate the relative size of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} explain how changes in the composition of blood can disrupt the internal balance, or homeostasis of the body.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} explain how blood tests can indicate the presence of anemia, sickly cell anemia, mononucleosis, cancer, and deficiencies in the blood clotting process.

## Activity 1-2: Composition of Blood - Activity Report Answer Key

• Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
1. What are the two components of whole blood?
2. What percent of whole blood is made up of blood cells?
3. Name the three types of blood cells and tell what they do.
4. What percent of blood cells are red blood cells? White blood cells? Platelets?
5. Use your model to demonstrate how a change in the composition of blood upsets homeostasis, leading to particular medical conditions.
6. What percent of whole blood is made up of plasma?
7. What percent of the liquid part of the blood is made up of dissolved substances represented by the yellow water?

Blood Impressions Students paint or draw an instructional picture clearly showing the composition of blood.

Artificial Blood Students conduct a research assignment on the composition, synthesis, and use of artificial blood.

A suggested response will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org.

An accident victim in the emergency room needs a blood transfusion. Her blood type is A. Which blood type(s) are compatible with hers?

• Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
1. What are five differences between red blood cells and white blood cells?
2. How do red blood cells carry oxygen? What happens if red blood cells aren't the right shape or there aren't enough of them?
3. What is in plasma? What do the things in plasma do?
4. If the doctor discovers your platelet count is low, what might you have to be careful of? Why?
5. Describe two functions of the lymphatic system.

## Activity 1-1 Report: Pathway of Blood through Your Body

1. Place the model in front of you with the two blue cups on your left and the two red cups on your right. Set the balloon on top of the cups and position the beans in front of the cups. This is the position of the circulatory system as it would be in a person facing you. Make a drawing of your model and label: heart, lung, cells, and vessels.

2. Each cup represents a heart chamber. The blood enters the heart through each of the upper chambers and flows into the corresponding lower chambers before leaving the heart. How many chambers make up the human heart?

3. The red heart chambers and vessels contain blood high in oxygen content. The blue heart chambers and vessels contain blood poor in oxygen content. You may remember that the removal of water is called dehydration and decaffeinated coffee is coffee with the caffeine removed. If the blood that is high in oxygen content is called oxygenated blood, then what would you call the blood which has had oxygen removed for use by the cells?

4. Based upon the structure of your model, does blood from the blue (right) side of the heart mix with the blood from the red (left) side of the heart?

5. Look at your model and explain where oxygen is added and removed.

Bonus Question: The threads, yarn, and straws represent the vessels. The straws and yarn represent arteries and veins, and the threads represent the capillaries. Label these vessels correctly on your diagram and be prepared to give reasons for your answers.

## Activity 1-2 Report: Composition of Blood

1. What are the two components of whole blood?

2. What percent of whole blood is made up of blood cells?

3. Name the three types of blood cells and tell what they do.

4. What percent of blood cells are red blood cells? White blood cells? Platelets?

5. Use your model to demonstrate how a change in the composition of blood upsets homeostasis leading to particular medical conditions.

6. What percent of whole blood is made up of plasma?

7. What percent of the liquid part of the blood is made up of dissolved substances represented by the yellow water?

### Notes/Highlights Having trouble? Report an issue.

Color Highlighted Text Notes

Show Hide Details
Description
Authors:
Tags:
Subjects: