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9.1: Planning

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Key Idea

  • Species, including humans, affect other species in both positive and negative ways.


In the previous section, students learned that all organisms require specific resources in order to survive and reproduce. This section addresses the ways that different species interact with one another, Students learn that humans interact with other species in much the same way as other organisms do. A variety of species' interactions is discussed in the text and students identify different types of interactions by listening to and then finishing a story about an oak tree habitat. The students examine how organisms live together and how they can help or harm each other.



\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify and compare different types of species interaction such as competition, mutualism, parasitism, and predator-prey relationships.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} categorize the role each species plays in the different interactions.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} define and give examples of the terms predator and prey.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} observe predator-prey relationships.


camouflage, competition, host organism, mimicry, mutualism, parasite, predation

Student Materials

Activity 8-1: Once Upon an Oak Tree

  • Writing materials
  • Drawing materials (optional)

Teacher Materials

Activity 8-1: Once Upon an Oak Tree

  • Resource

Advance Preparation

Activity 8-1: Once Upon an Oak Tree

  • Make an audiotape of yourself or someone else reading the story.
  • See Activity 8-1 in the Student Edition
  • You might want to prepare copies of Activity 8-1: Once Upon an Oak Tree Resource for your students.

Enrichment Activity

Enrichment 8-1: Predator-Prey Relationships

Students observe predation by constructing a model environment consisting of fruit flies and carnivorous plants inside a plastic bottle.

Carnivorous plants can be purchased from most biological supply houses as well as from many nurseries.

Fruit flies can be purchased through a biological supply company.

Carolina Biological Supply Company, 2700 York Rd., Burlington, NC 27215. Call 1-800-227-1150.

Or, you can breed them yourself. To breed your own fruit flies you will need to start 3 to 6 weeks prior to this activity to ensure that you have a large enough population. See Project #2: Population Boom or Bust on TE p. 217 for full details on starting your own fruit fly population.

An excellent reference for working with plastic bottles is Bottle Biology, by P.H. Williams, published by Kendall-Hunt Publishing Company, 1993.

Background Information

Monarch butterflies are poisonous to birds because they feed on milkweed as caterpillars. Milkweed has a toxic compound in it known as a cardiac glycoside that can induce a heart attack if taken in too great an amount. The cardiac glycoside remains in the butterflies' bodies when they become adults and provides protection from predation.

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Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Apr 29, 2014
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