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Content Overview

Genetics: Who are our ancestors? Whose nose do you have? From what side of the family does your artistic ability come?

This unit invites students to learn about the genetic mechanisms that make each individual uniquely different. For adolescents, learning why people are the way they are can be an important process. Adolescents need to realize that they are not alone-that they are part of the continuity of a species and a family, and that they carry in them a genetic history of their ancestors. Over the course of the unit, students can begin to address some of the personal and societal bio-ethical decisions that arise from our continuing exploration and knowledge of human genetics.

The structure of this unit moves from the fundamentals of continuity and diversity through the structure and function of DNA and the process of protein synthesis, to a discussion of genetic engineering and genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell disease, and color blindness. Students explore variations in eye width, wrist circumference, and make a personal set of fingerprints. They apply their knowledge of chromosomes to construct and interpret human karyotypes. Students conduct two laboratory activities that enable them to see purified DNA and DNA that they remove from thymus tissue. They extend their knowledge of chromosomes and heredity by using pipe cleaners to simulate meiosis. Students investigate the Human Genome Project and study a trait found on one of the chromosomes. They conclude their studies of human genetics and apply what they have learned by participating in a mock senate hearing on genetic engineering. This unit places the student in the context of making decisions for the future-for their genes will be passed on to future generations. Learning about genetic inheritance sets up an opportunity to talk about decision-making, risk, and control.

Summary Questions to Consider throughout the Unit

  • If you could predict your future, what would you want to know?
  • If you could control genetic expression, what would you control for?
  • How far should genetic engineering go?
  • Who should set policy regarding genetic research and the many business opportunities that arise from each new discovery?

How Is This Unit Structured?

The unit begins with a discussion of continuity and diversity and how the study of genetics is relevant to our lives.

Section 2 reviews some cell biology and introduces chromosomes.

Sections 3, 4, and 5 focus on DNA, cell division, and protein synthesis.

Section 6 discusses the concepts of dominant and recessive genes.

Sections 7, 8, and 9 look at genetic disorders, genetic engineering, and the Human Genome project.

Why Teach This Unit?

Connections to the Real World

“For the first time in history, it is within our power to design life by deliberate human intervention. The possibilities and implications are awesome, but we lack the historical, social and cultural guidelines that can lead us through this uncharted territory.”

-David Suzuki and Peter Knudson, Genetics, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.

“Every human gene must have an ancestor.”

As you read this unit, geneticists are hard at work trying to identify human genes, read DNA, and produce proteins in a laboratory. Their work could have tremendous implications for the future of the human race. Will we have a disease-free society? Will couples “design” their children? If you had something about you that you didn't like, would you fix it?

Adolescents are fascinated with human disorders and human appearance. The study of genetics helps them to learn about the how's and why's of appearances and how a person may have a inherited a disorder or disfigurement-in the hope that through this knowledge, adolescents will show more compassion towards individuals with these physical challenges.

Adolescents often feel isolated and unsure of their identity. Genetics offers students the opportunity to think about themselves in a different context-in one of continuity and diversity. Students learn that each adolescent carries a genetic family history that offers a strong connection with the past and with distant relatives. It also places students in the context of making decisions for the future-for their genes will be passed on to future generations. Learning about genetic inheritance sets up an opportunity to talk about decision-making, risk, and control.

Unit Activities and Key Ideas
Section Key Ideas Activity

1. Continuity and Diversity

What makes one species different from another?

  • Members of an animal or plant species have distinctive characteristics, or traits, in common.
  • Within a species, individuals have variations which are examples of diversity.
  • Members of a species produce offspring that have characteristics similar to the parents.
  • Geneticists study the biological causes of continuity and diversity among living things.

Mini Activity: Peanut Sort

Mini Activity: Eye Variation

Activity 1-1: Fingerprinting

Mini Activity: Continuity and Diversity in Art

Mini Activity: Wrist Variation

Mini Activity: Human Variations

2. Cells and Chromosomes

How does an individual develop certain characteristics?

  • Chromosomes in the nucleus carry the genes responsible for human traits and variations.
  • Chromosomes occur in pairs, with exception of the sex chromosomes which may not be the same.
  • Individuals of the same species have the same number of chromosomes.
  • A karyotype is a “portrait of the chromosomes in a cell” and is useful in helping diagnose, learn about, and explain many genetic diseases.

Mini Activity: Genetics in the news

Activity 2-1: Karyotyping-A Chromosome Portrait

3. Chromosomes and DNA

What is the composition of a chromosome?

  • Chromosomes are made of two chemical substances, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein.
  • A gene is a segment of the DNA of a chromosome that can be copied (replicated) and that codes for a specific protein.
  • DNA is composed of four different nucleotides: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.
  • Each nucleotide is composed of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate molecule, and one of four nitrogen bases.
  • Nucleotides are arranged in pairs, guanine with cytosine, and adenine with thymine, to form DNA.

Activity 3-1: Precipitation and Spooling of DNA

Activity 3-2: Removing DNA from Thymus Cells

Activity 3-3: Building and Using a DNA Model

4. Cell Division

How are traits passed from one generation to the next generation?

  • Mitosis is the division of replicated chromosomes which is necessary for making new cells having the same number of chromosomes and the same traits as the parent cells.
  • Meiosis is the division process that reduces the chromosome number, producing gametes (sperm and ova) in preparation for fertilization.
  • Fertilization, or union of sperm and ovum, yields a zygote (fertilized ovum) and restores the normal number of chromosomes in somatic cells of that new organism.
  • Models are important tools that help geneticists explain biological processes.

Activity 4-1: Cell Division-Double or Nothing

Activity 4-2: Meiosis and Fertilization

5. Gene Expression-DNA Codes of specific proteins

How is information contained in DNA expressed?

  • DNA contains the coded information for the synthesis of specific proteins, which is the result of gene expression.
  • Protein are large molecules composed of amino acids that perform essential functions in the body.
  • The DNA code, or gene, for a protein resides in the nucleus and is taken by messenger RNA (rnRNA) to the ribosome in the cytoplasm for synthesis.
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) transports each amino acid to the ribosome to take its place in the newly forming protein molecule according to the instructions encoded in the mRNA.

Mini Activity: Run to the Ribosome

Activity 5-1: Making Protein

6. Expressing Dominant and Recessive Genes Why are offspring from the same parents different? how can offspring show traits not seen in either of their parents
  • Pedigrees are important tools for geneticists to use in Mini Activity: Family Dominant and tracing traits and variations from one generation to the Pedigree One Recessive Genes next.
  • Genes have different forms, called alleles. Two alleles Pedigree Two the same parents make up a gene pair for a specific trait
  • A dominant allele expresses its trait whenever it is present in a gene pair. Two recessive alleles must be present in order to express that trait
  • Gregor Mendel's work studying inheritance in garden peas in the 1860s laid the foundation for the modern science of genetics.

Mini Activity: Family Pedigree one

Mini Activity: Family Pedigree two

Activity 6-1: Expression:Dominant and Recessive

7. Single Gene Disorders What are some genetic conditions that research might be able to help treat or cure?
  • Single gene disorders are classified by geneticists into Activity 7-1: Exploring a Disorders dominant, recessive and sex-linked, depending upon Single Gene Disorder their pattern of inheritance.
  • Dominant patterns of inheritance occur when the genetic defect is a dominant allele.
  • Recessive patterns of inheritance occur when the Inheritance Pattern-Color genetic defect is a recessive allele.
  • Sex-linked patterns of inheritance occur when the genetic defect is located on the X or Y chromosome.

Activity 7-1: Exploring a single gene disorder

Mini Activity: Hemophilia

Mini Activity: X-linked Inheritance Pattern-Color Blindness

8. Other Genetic Conditions and Genetic Counseling How do chromosomes and the environment contribute to human variation?
  • Some genetic conditions are caused by the interaction of several genes. The interaction makes predicting the condition of the offspring more difficult.
  • Chromosomal disorders leading to other genetic are caused by errors that occur during the process of meiosis. Sometimes a piece of a chromosome is missing, an entire chromosome is missing, or an extra chromosome is present in the offspring.
  • Non genetic birth defects are caused by factors that affect the maternal environment in which the fetus grows and develops.
  • Genetic counselors can help couples and families learn more about their risks for genetic diseases and help families living with a genetic disease find good medical treatments.
  • Population geneticists are concerned with variations in gene frequencies in different populations of people around the world.
Activity 8-1: Investigating the human genome project

9. Genetic Engineering

How can learning about DNA solve new problems?

  • Genetic engineering is the process by which genes are made to produce proteins in the laboratory by using recombinant DNA procedures
  • Recombinant DNA technology places a desired gene into a bacterial plasmid, which then expresses the protein for which it codes.
  • Recombinant DNA technology is used to produce many proteins, some of which safely and effectively treat human genetic diseases.
  • The goals of the Human Genome Project are to map all human genes and determine the DNA sequence of all of the chromosomes of the human genome.
  • The new genetic technologies have created the need for each person to learn about genetics in order to make responsible and informed decisions on how these technologies should be used by our society.

Mini Activity: Role-Play Issues in Genetic Engineering

Mini Activity: Gene Information

Mini Activity: Explaining Genetics

Mini Activity: Concept Map

Activity 9-1 Biotechnology in the U.S senate

Teacher's Guide Overview

This Genetics unit is built around a set of student activities. Text material can be used to introduce, reinforce, and extend the concepts developed in the activities. The activities are the foundation of this unit, so the unit's success depends on student involvement in the activities. Embedded activities are interrelated, since the concepts developed in one may be applied in another.

Section Planning For each section, you'll find extensive advance planning for the student activities and the section topic. Key ideas, section objectives, background information, suggestions for introducing activities, and the materials needed for each activity are listed on the Section Planning page. Review this information ahead of time to ensure that materials for each activity are available when you need them.

Support for Embedded Activities

Embedded activities are those activities contained or “embedded” in the student edition. Procedures for each embedded activity are contained in the student edition. In the Teacher's Guide, you'll find activity planning information, activity assessment, and student reproducible pages for each embedded activity.

Enrichment Activities Enrichment activities are activities found in the Teacher's Guide. These activities are designed to extend and enrich students' learning experiences. Enrichment activities, including student procedures and reproducible pages, are located at the end of each appropriate section of the Teacher's Guide.

Group Work Activities Learning science is a process that is both individual and social. Students in science classrooms often need to interact with their peers to develop a knowledge of scientific concepts and ideas, just as researchers, engineers, mathematicians, and physicians do who are working in teams to answer questions and to solve problems. The GroupWork activities in the HumBio Curriculum have been developed to foster a collaborative environment for groups of students. Group Work activities provide an environment in which students are “doing science” as a team.

For more information, refer to “Using Group Work Activities” on page 110. The specific GroupWork activities for this unit can be found beginning on TE page 114.

Projects The research and action projects in HumBio are varied and provide students with time to explore a particular topic in depth. With projects, students have the opportunity to take a position based on knowledge gained through research, debate an issue, and devise a plan of action. In this way, students can apply what they are learning to larger issues in the world around them.

Projects for this unit include

  • Research Questions
  • Investigating Careers in Genetics
  • Developing a Lesson in Genetics

Assessment Overview

Within each section of the unit there are suggestions for assessment that can be used individually or in combination to develop a complete assessment package. The list below describes the variety of assessment tools provided.

Apply Your Knowledge questions appear throughout each section. They can be used as homework assignments and as ways to initiate a class discussion. These questions are designed to assess

  • communication skills
  • depth of thought and preparation
  • problem-solving skills
  • ability to apply concepts to related or big ideas
  • how well students relate their new knowledge to different problems

What Do You Think?

These questions appear in each section. They provide students with opportunities to think and write about the concepts they are learning in a larger context. You can use these questions to assess

  • writing skills
  • problem-solving abilities
  • creativity and depth of thought
  • the ability to analyze and summarize

Journal Writing prompts are suggested throughout the unit. These prompts provide opportunities for students to write critically and creatively about concepts and issues. The writing products can be used to assess

  • writing skills
  • depth of thought
  • and the ability to explain and expand concepts

Review Questions

Review Questions are located at the end of each section. These questions can be used for written responses or as the basis for class discussion. These questions are designed to assess content knowledge and whether students can explain the concepts explored in the section.

Activity-Based Assessment

Inquiry-base student-centered activities are the foundation of the Human Biology Program. The unit is rich with relevant a exciting activities that introduce support, or reinforce concepts students are exploring. Within the Teacher's Guide, you'll find extensive teacher information, including assessment strategies, for each type of activity:

  • Embedded Activities
  • Enrichment Activities
  • Mini Activities
  • Group Work
  • Projects

You can use students' products to assess their progress. These products includes models, simulations observations and reports of laboratory investigations, role-plays, written responses to questions and written observations, student-designed explorations and procedures, poster presentations, and classroom presentations.

PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT You may want to have your students develop a portfolio for the unit. Portfolio assessment is an excellent way to assess the whole student as he or she progresses throughout the unit. Although there are many opportunities to select a variety of the student's products, the following list shows one possible assessment portfolio for this unit:

  • Written responses to three What Do You Think? questions.
  • Written responses to one Apply Your Knowledge question from each section.
  • An analysis of their two favorite activities and how those activities helped them learn an important concept.
  • Reports from three laboratory investigations such as:
Activity 1-1: Fingerprinting
Activity 2-1: Karyotyping-A Chromosome Portrait
Activity 3-2: Removing DNA from Thymus Cells
  • A model from Activity 3-3: Building and Using a DNA Model
  • An example of calculation from Activity 6-1: Expression: Dominant and Recessive

Getting Started

Keep Students Interested. Encourage students to read the text: It is the story line that ties all of the content together. Every effort has been made to make the text interesting to students and appropriate to their reading level. Text material can be used to introduce, reinforce, and extend the concepts addressed within the activities.

The success of the unit depends on the completion of at least the Embedded activities. And keep in mind that some activities are related, since the data obtained in one may be used in another.

Plan Ahead. The unit is activity-based, and you can select the activities that will best meet your class needs. The activities are listed in the Unit Matrix on page xiii and in the Activity Index on page 152. Mini Activities are shorter and can be done with minimal teacher input; they are located in the margin of the student edition. The Embedded activities in the student text are investigations that require some planning and setup time; these are the essential activities within the unit. Other investigations called Enrichment activities are located at the end of each section in the Teacher's Guide. Enrichment activities expand student knowledge of the concepts explored in the given section.

A variety of projects were designed to extend the content of the unit. These include ongoing class projects, school projects, and/or community projects. Projects are located at the end of the Teacher's Guide, beginning on page 145.

Customize the Unit. Each section of this unit builds upon knowledge gained in the previous sections. Teaching timelines are provided on TE pages xii-xiii. The first timeline on TE page xii demonstrates how to complete this unit within a three week schedule. The timeline on TE page xxiii demonstrates how to complete this unit within a five-week schedule. Both of these timelines highlight the essential activities. If your class has time to study the unit over a longer period of time, many additional activities are available.

Allow Time for Projects. Consider having students start projects at the beginning of the unit and then prepare those projects for presentation as a culminating event.

Use Current Events. Ask students to bring in newspaper and magazine articles that relate to what they are studying each week. Relating the unit content to current events helps students see that what they are doing in class is, in fact, relevant to their lives outside of school. Students can use current events to make group scrapbooks, bulletin boards, and posters or to develop class presentations.

Make a “Question Box” Available. Have students write down questions they have about what they are investigating and put them in the box. At appropriate times select questions and read them to the class to generate discussion. These questions can also be used to initiate class research projects.

Use a Variety of Resources. We encourage you and your students to use a wide variety of sources for information. The activities provide rich opportunities for students to explore a variety of concepts. The more students incorporate information from resources outside the classroom, the richer their learning experiences will be. Use computer services for gathering student and teacher information, for networking with students in different schools and with community resources, and for contacting experts in the field under study. A list of resources can be found on page 150 of this Teacher's Guide.

Make Career Connections. Encourage students to investigate careers related to the content of the unit. Invite scientists, physicians, and technologists working in the field to come to your classroom to discuss career opportunities, their research, and specific topics of interest.

Plan for Field Trips. Field trips to local hospitals, industrial sites, or universities need, of course, to be arranged well in advance. Contact the public affairs offices of these institutions for assistance.

Address Health Concerns. Be aware of any special health problems your students may have. Some students may have health conditions that would make it uncomfortable for them to participate in certain activities, such as those that require exercise or that relate directly to their particular health problems. For students unable to participate fully in these activities you may wish to create an alternative assignment or have them use data from another group. If the class is appropriately prepared, the affected students may want to share information about their special circumstances with the class in order to increase empathy and knowledge of all students.

Connect with Other HumBio Units. The units covering human physiological systems, cell biology, and genetics are related. There are many opportunities to make connections among the concepts taught in these units. Similarly, the three units covering the biological, behavioral, and social aspects of adolescent development can be taught in sequence.

Connect with Other Disciplines. The interdisciplinary web provided is a guide for planning if your school uses an interdisciplinary team approach. The web classifies the unit's activities and projects by related discipline-language arts, math, social studies, physical education, health/nutrition, and visual/performing arts, and science. For interdisciplinary planning, schedule meetings with your team early. You are encouraged to tap the talents and interests of your team members as well as of your unique school and community resources in developing other suitable activities for this unit.

Connect with the Home. Give special attention to the unit activities as a means of involving family and community members. Also, encourage your students to take selected Apply Your Knowledge questions and Mini Activities home for further exploration.

Teaching Time lines

You can use these time1ines as a place to start in designing your own timelines, or you can use them as they are laid out. If you're planning your own timeline, consider the inclusion of the Embedded activities first. The “Embedded activities” are included in the student edition. The Enrichment activities, GroupWork activities, and Projects can then be included, depending on your time restrictions. The timelines are guides, which can vary depending on activities assigned as homework and those conducted in other classes.

We realize it may not be possible to do all the activities shown on these timelines. If you need to remove activities, be careful not to remove any activities critical to the content of the unit. You may want to divide the activities among interdisciplinary members of your teaching team.

Page references in this chart refer to the student edition, except when Enrichments are suggested. The page references for Enrichments are to this Teacher's Guide.

Option 1: Three Week Timeline
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Week 1

Introduce the unit

Introduce Section 1

Mini Activities: Peanut Sort Human Variations

Eye Variation

Activity 1-1: Fingerprinting

Mini Activities: Continuity and Diversity in Art as homework

Wrist Variation

Introduce Section 2

Activity 2-1: Karyotyping-A Chromosome Portrait

Begin and complete for homework

Introduce Section 3


Activity 3-1: Precipitation and Spooling of DNA

Activity 3-2: Removing DNA from Thymus Cells

Activity 3-3: Part A Building and Using a DNA Model using preassembled nucleotides

Part B Replication

Week 2

Review Section 3

Introduce Section 4 and begin

Activity 4-1: Cell Division-Double or Nothing


Activity 4-2: Meiosis and Fertilization

Introduce Section 5

Mini Activity: Run to the Ribosome

Assess Sections 4 and 5

Introduce Section 6

Mini Activities: Family Pedigree One or Family Pedigree Two

Week 3

Activity 6-1: Expression: Dominant and Recessive

Assign Punnett Square Practice homework

Introduce Section 7

Activity 7-1: Exploring a Single Gene Disorder

Mini Activities: Hemophilia X-linked


Activity 8-1: Investigating the Human Genome Project

Assign roles for

Activity 9-1: Biotechnology in the U.S. Senate

Activity 9-1: Biotechnology in the U.S. Senate

Activity 9-1: Biotechnology in the U.S. Senate

Unit review and assessment (next week)

Option 2: Five Week Timeline
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Week 1

Introduce the unit

Introduce Section 1

Mini Activities: Peanut Sort Human Variations

Eye Variation

Activity 1-1: Fingerprinting

Mini Activities: Continuity and Diversity in Art as homework

Wrist Variation

Introduce Section 2

Activity 2-1: Karyotyping-A Chromosome Portrait

Assign the Journal Writing activity that deals with genetics in the news.


Activity 2-1: Karyotyping-A Chromosome Portrait

Review Sections 1 and 2

Introduce Section 3

Activity 3-1: Precipitation and Spooling of DNA

Week 2' Activity 3-2: Removing DNA from Thymus Cells Activity 3-3: Building and Using a DNA Model Part A

Activity 3-3: Building and Using a DNA Model Part B

Review Section 3

Introduce Section 4

Activity 4-1: Cell Division-Double or Nothing

Activity 4-2: Meiosis and Fertilization Part A
Week 3 Complete Activity 4-2: Meiosis and Fertilization Part B

Introduce Section 5

Mini Activities: Run to the Ribosome

Activity 5-1: Making Protein

Complete Activity 5-1: Making Protein Assess Sections 4 and 5

Introduce Section 6

Mini Activities: Family Pedigree One or Family Pedigree Two

Week 4

Activity 6-1: Expression: Dominant and Recessive

Punnett Square Practice

Introduce Section 7

Activity 7-1: Exploring and Single Gene Disorder

Mini Activities:Hemophilia X-linked
Review Sections 6 and 7

Assess Sections 6 and 7

Introduce Section 8

Assign and discuss

Activity 8-1: Investigating the Human Genome Project

Assign roles for

Activity 9-1: Biotechnology in the U.S. Senate

Week 5

Introduce Section 9

Mini Activities: Gene Information

Explaining Genetics

Concept Map

Prepare for role-play for Activity

Activity 9-1: Biotechnology in the U.S. Senate Activity 9-1: Biotechnology in the U.S. Senate Review Unit Assess Unit

Safety for Teachers

  • Always perform an experiment or demonstration on your own before allowing students to perform the activity. Look for possible hazards. Alert students to possible dangers. Safety instructions should be given each time an experiment is begun.
  • Wear glasses and not contact lenses. Make sure you and your students wear safety goggles in the lab when performing any experiments.
  • Do not tolerate horseplay or practical jokes of any kind.
  • Do not allow students to perform any unauthorized experiments.
  • Never use mouth suction in filling pipettes with chemical reagents.
  • Never “force” glass tubing into rubber stoppers.
  • Use equipment that is heat resistant.
  • Set good safety examples when conducting demonstrations and experiments.
  • Turn off all hot plates and open burners when they are not in use and when leaving the lab.
  • When students are working with open flames, remind them to tie back long hair and to be aware of loose clothing in order to avoid contact with flames.
  • Make sure you and your students know the location of and how to use fire extinguishers, eyewash fountains, safety showers, fire blankets, and first-aid kits.
  • Students and student aides should be fully aware of potential hazards and know how to deal with accidents. Establish and educate students on first-aid procedures.
  • Teach students the safety precautions regarding the use of electricity in everyday situations. Make sure students understand that the human body is a conductor of electricity. Never handle electrical equipment with wet hands or when standing in damp areas. Never overload electrical circuits. Use 3-prong service outlets.
  • Make sure that electrical equipment is properly grounded. A ground-fault circuit breaker is desirable for all laboratory AC circuits. A master switch to cut off electricity to all stations is desirable for all laboratory AC circuits.
  • Make sure you and your students are familiar with how to leave the lab safely in an emergency. Be sure you know a safe exit route in the event of a fire or an explosion.

For Student Safety in the Classroom

  • Wear safety goggles in the lab when performing any experiments. Tie back long hair and tuck in loose clothing while performing experiments, especially when working near or with an open flame.
  • Never eat or drink anything while working in the science classroom. Only lab manuals, notebooks, and writing instruments should be in the work area.
  • Do not taste any chemicals for any reason, including identification.
  • Carefully dispose of waste materials as instructed by your teacher. Wash your hands thoroughly.
  • Do not use cracked, chipped, or deeply scratched glassware, and never handle broken glass with your bare hands.
  • Lubricate glass tubing and thermometers with water or glycerin before inserting them into a rubber stopper. Do not apply force when inserting or removing a stopper from glassware while using a twisting motion.
  • Allow hot glass to cool before touching it. Hot glass shows no visible signs of its temperature and can cause painful burns. Do not allow the open end of a heated test tube to be pointed toward another person.
  • Do not use reflected sunlight for illuminating microscopes. Reflected sunlight can damage your eyes.
  • Tell your teacher if you have any medical problems that may affect your safety in doing lab work. These problems may include allergies, asthma, sensitivity to certain chemicals, epilepsy, or any heart condition.
  • Report all accidents and problems to your teacher immediately.


  • Preserved specimens showing signs of decay should not be used for lab observation or dissection. Alert your teacher to any problem with the specimen.
  • Dissecting instruments, such as scissors and scalpels, are sharp. Use a cutting motion directed away from yourself and your lab partner.
  • Be sure the specimen is pinned down firmly in a dissecting tray before starting a dissection.
  • In most cases very little force is necessary for making incisions. Excess force can damage delicate, preserved tissues.
  • Do not touch your eyes while handling preserved specimens. First wash your hands thoroughly with warm water and soap. Also wash your hands thoroughly with warm water and soap when you are finished with the dissection.

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Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Last Modified:

Sep 08, 2014
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