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active transport
the use of energy to move materials from a region where they are in a lower concentration to a region where they are in a higher concentration.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a compound that stores energy.
amino acids
molecules that are the building blocks of proteins.
cancer
a change in the way cells are able to control their own reproduction.
cells
the basic units (or building blocks) of life. They form the tissues, organs, and systems of the human body.
cell membrane
(or plasma membrane) a membrane that surrounds the contents of the cell and separates it from other cells and the environment.
cell theory
a theory that states that cells are the units of life and all cells come from preexisting cells.
cellular respiration
a process in which glucose is broken down through a series of reactions to produce ATP, as well as carbon dioxide and water.
chromosomes
large molecules in the nucleus made up of DNA and protein.
codon
a triplet of mRNA nucleotides that directs the placement of an amino acid into a polypeptide chain.
connective tissue
a group of cells that support and hold things together.
cystic fibrosis
a genetic disease in which the affected person receives a mutated gene from both the mother and the father and has problems with recurring lung infections because certain cells in their lungs do not function properly.
cytoplasm
fluid within the cell membrane of a cell that contains water and other chemicals.
diffusion
the random movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
diploid
a cell that has two full sets of chromosomes. In humans, this is 46 chromosomes.
DNA polymerases
special enzymes that carry out the neat and orderly replication process of DNA.
double helix
two strands that twist around each other like coils. In biology, it refers to the double chain of nucleotides that form a molecule of DNA.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
an elaborate membrane system throughout the cytoplasm.
enzymes
proteins that help chemical reactions take place. Enzymes help cells build products like proteins, make copies of DNA molecules, and carry out all their functions.
epithelial tissue
sheets of cells that form your skin, the lining of your breathing and digestive systems, and the covering of the organs of your body.
gamete cells
sperm in males or eggs in females.
genes
specific regions of the DNA that code for the production of specific proteins. Genes are responsible for specific products and functions characteristic of the particular cell type.
Golgi apparatus
the flattened sacs that help sort the proteins synthesized by the rough ER and ribosomes.
haploid
having one complete set of chromosomes. In humans a haploid gamete cell has one set of the 23 chromosomes.
helicase
an enzyme that helps the DNA molecule start to unwind at one end.
meiosis
a special kind of cell division that produces eggs and sperm. It involves two cell divisions, but only one duplication of the genetic materials, so that each daughter cell receives only one chromosome of each chromosome pair, or one complete set of the chromosomes for that organism.
messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)
a type of nucleic acid that takes the code for a protein from DNA to the ribosome where the protein is produced.
mitochondria
cell organelles that are the factory and storage center for ATP, which is used as energy by the cell in making cellular products and carrying out the functions of the cell.
mitosis
cell division in which the parent cell reproduces into two identical daughter cells as a result of division of the duplicated chromosomes and division of the cytoplasm.
muscle tissue
groups of cells that can contract.
mutation
a permanent change in the DNA of a cell.
nervous tissue
a group of cells that can process information and send messages or signals.
nucleotides
repeating molecular units that make up DNA.
nucleus
an important cell organelle that is the control center of the cell, containing the chromosomes with their genetic material, DNA.
organ
a group of tissues that work together.
organelles
the parts of the cell that are organized for specific functions, such as the nucleus.
osmosis
the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane in response to a solute concentration difference.
passive transport
the movement of a substance across a membrane due to a concentration difference and not requiring the expenditure of energy.
replication
the process through which DNA is copied.
ribosomes
the sites for protein synthesis.
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that makes a complementary mRNA from the DNA template.
somatic cells
almost all the cells in your body-the cells that make up the structure of your body and all your organs, such as the brain, heart, muscles, intestine, and liver. All cells except gamete cells.
stem cell
a cell that divides to renew itself and, also, can give rise to many cell types.
stroke
the blockage of, or break in, a blood vessel that serves a portion of the brain, causing the cells in that brain region to get sick and/or die.
system
organs that work together.
tissue
a group of similar cells working together to carry out a specific function.
transcription
the process of making a messenger RNA molecule from a segment of DNA.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
a type of RNA that brings the amino acids to the ribosomes to make proteins.
translation
protein synthesis. The coded message in mRNA is translated to produce a protein.
tumors
abnormal tissues produced when cancer cells continue to divide.

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