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Activity 5-1: Cells Gone Awry

PLAN

Summary Students use microscopes to compare the structure and appearance of cells from normal and diseased tissue. They identify structural differences and predict how these differences may affect tissue function.

Objectives

Students:

\checkmark compare normal and diseased tissue samples.

\checkmark identify structural differences in cells from diseased and normal tissue.

\checkmark predict how structural differences may affect normal function of the tissue.

Student Materials

  • Activity Report
  • Compound light microscope
  • Prepared laboratory slides from blood, lung, or liver tissue

Teacher Materials

  • Activity Report Answer Key
  • Photographs, charts, diagrams, slides, or laserdisk images of normal and diseased tissue from blood, lung, or liver

Advance Preparation

Allow ample time to order slides. A suggested resource for prepared slides follows:

Carolina Biological Supply Company Telephone: 1-800-334-5551

Suggested slides:

Human Pathology sets, contain variety of slides including normal/diseased, or diseased only. Price range varies for 3-24 slides. e.g., D8-31-6986 Histopathology of Disease Set. 24 slides include normal and diseased tissues of the same organ. Give a general overview of some disease processes. Human pathology preparations can also be ordered separately from the Carolina catalogues.

Other sources include slides from a local high school science department, hospital, clinic, or university research laboratory.

Gather sufficient numbers of microscopes and slides for students to work in teams of two.

Estimated Time One to two class periods

Interdisciplinary Connection

Health Education Arrange for a cytotechnologist, scientist, or physician from a research laboratory, clinic, or hospital to discuss the cellular basis of diseases such as cancer and cystic fibrosis.

Prerequisites and Background

Students need to have knowledge of cell parts and their function. They also need to know the differences between somatic cells and gamete cells.

IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 5-1 by reminding students of the correct, safe procedure for using a microscope.

  • First, set up the microscope with an appropriate light source. If using a microscope with a mirror, remind students not to point the mirror directly at the sun.
  • Select the coarse adjustment and lowest power objective. Watching carefully from the side, lower the objective carefully until it barely reaches the surface of the prepared slide.
  • Look through the eyepiece and use the fine adjustment to slowly draw the objective away from the slide to bring the specimen into sharp focus.
  • Remind students that prepared slides require much time and expense to make. Therefore, students need to be very careful not to break them by moving the microscope objective onto the prepared slide.

Step 1 Prior to their observations and comparisons of the slides, discuss with students what is meant by differences in arrangement of cells, or the size of the nucleus as compared to the amount of cytoplasm. You may want students to review Section 1.

Steps 2-4 Depending on your supply of samples, you may have teams examining different tissues. If necessary, explain to students which tissue samples of normal and diseased specimens that each team is to examine.

Steps 5-6 Have students complete their Activity Reports. Monitor the cleanup and storage of the materials used. Monitor the return of the prepared slides and microscopes.

Helpful Hints

If students ask what a pathologist does, they can conduct research to discover the following information.

  • A pathologist is a physician who interprets and diagnoses the changes caused by disease in cells and tissues. Pathologists send their reports to other physicians, such as surgeons, pediatricians, and oncologists (cancer specialists) to help them determine treatments for patients or to identify cause of death.
  • Pathology is a specialized branch of medicine involving the essential nature of diseases, the disease process, and especially the structural and functional changes produced by them.
  • Locations in a community where pathologists work include hospitals, forensic labs, research institutions, industry, diagnostic clinics, and medical practices.

Assess

Use the completion of the activity and the written answers on the Activity Report to assess if students can

\checkmark identify structural differences in the appearance of cells from normal and diseased tissue samples.

\checkmark predict how structural differences in cells may affect tissue function.

Activity 5-1: Cells Gone Awry – Activity Report Answer Key

  • Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
  1. Draw and label each normal tissue sample.
  2. Draw and label each diseased tissue sample.
  3. Select one tissue, and compare the normal and diseased samples. Describe the similarities and the differences in features such as cell size, shape, number, the arrangement of cells within the tissue, and the size of the nucleus compared to the amount of cytoplasm.
  4. How would these diseased cells affect the normal function of this tissue or organ in the body?
  5. From what you have learned in this unit, what factors might be responsible for a normal cell becoming diseased? Explain the processes involved.

Review Questions/Answers

  • Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
  1. What are mutations? Can they be harmful? Explain.
  2. How can mutations be beneficial? Explain.
  3. What can you do to reduce your risk of developing cancer? Explain.

Activity 5-1 Report: Cells Gone Awry (Student Reproducible)

1. Draw and label each normal tissue sample.

2. Draw and label each diseased tissue sample.

3. Select one tissue and compare the normal and diseased samples. Describe the similarities and the differences in features such as cell size, shape, number, the arrangement of cells within the tissue, and the size of the nucleus compared to the amount of cytoplasm.

4. How would these diseased cells affect the normal function of this tissue or organ in the body?

5. From what you have learned in this unit, what factors might be responsible for a normal cell becoming diseased? Explain the processes involved.

Image Attributions

Description

Authors:

Grades:

6 , 7 , 8

Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Last Modified:

Apr 29, 2014
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