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3.1: Planning

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

Key Ideas

  • The reproductive systems of both the male and female consist of three parts that work together as an integrated unit. These three parts include production, storage and transportation, and delivery of either sperm (in the male) or ova (in the female).
  • Some of the male reproductive organs are outside of the body. Most of the female reproductive organs lie inside the body, where there is more and better protection for conception and childbearing. This maximizes reproductive success.
  • Circumcision is a cultural rite of passage. It does not affect the functions or sensitivity of the penis, nor does an uncircumcised penis cause any health problems.
  • The female reproductive system produces mature eggs (one each month) in the ovaries. Once released, they travel down the fallopian tubes into the uterus; and if not fertilized by a sperm, they exit the body through the vagina.


This section is a detailed look at both the male and female reproductive systems. Students are given the proper terminology for the external and internal reproductive organs, and they are expected to use the proper terms in class discussions and when filling out Activity Reports. They begin by focusing on the male reproductive system, discussing the genitals, then the production and storage of sperm in the testes, the transport of sperm through the vas deferens, and the delivery of sperm through the penis. The same approach is used for the female reproductive system. Students study the female genitals, then the production and storage of the eggs in the ovaries, transport of the egg through the fallopian tubes, and the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus, or the disintegration and release of the egg if it is not fertilized.



\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} locate and identify the parts of the male and female reproductive system in a drawing using proper terminology.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} describe the differences between the male and female reproductive systems.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} describe the process of reproduction.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} define the parts of the reproductive system.


bladder, cervix, circumcision, clitoris, corpus luteum, endocrine glands, epididymis, erection, estrogen, Fallopian tubes, follicle, foreskin, genitals, glans, hymen, major lips (labia majora), minor lips (labia minora), orgasm, ovaries, ovulation, penis, progesterone, prostate gland, pubic hair, scrotum, seminal vesicles, testes, testosterone, urethra, urethral opening, uterus, vagina, vas deferens

Student Materials

Activity 2-1: Male Anatomy

  • Activity Report

Activity 2-2: Female Anatomy

  • Activity Report

Teacher Materials

Activity 2-1: Male Anatomy

  • Activity Report Answer Key

Activity 2-2: Female Anatomy

  • Activity Report Answer Key

Advance Preparation

See Activities 2-1 and 2-2 in the Student Edition.

Activity 2-1: Male Anatomy

  • Optional: You may want to create an overhead transparency of this illustration for use at the end of the labeling procedure. Familiarize yourself by reading the appropriate pages in the teacher edition of the textbook.

Activity 2-2: Female Anatomy

  • Optional: You may want to create an overhead transparency of this illustration for use at the end of the labeling procedure.

Interdisciplinary Connection

Language Arts This unit is full of new vocabulary words. Their spellings and definitions can be incorporated into a language arts lesson.

Background Information

The physiology of sexual arousal and orgasm is fundamentally similar in men and women, but it is more easily described in the male because of the male's more obvious erection and ejaculation of semen.

Erection of the penis is a primarily vascular phenomenon. When more blood rushes in than flows out, the penis becomes stiff (similar to a garden hose with the nozzle shut when the water is turned on). An erection is primarily controlled by the parasympathetic segment of the autonomic nervous system. There are no muscles involved, and a man cannot voluntarily “will” an erection. He can only let it happen. The parasympathetic erection center in the sacral segment of the spinal cord can act independently of the brain, but normally it is strongly influenced by the brain. This is why men can have erections through fantasy, while feelings such as anxiety may inhibit it.

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