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Activity 4-1: Glands and Hormones

PLAN

Summary Students cut out and put together models of hormones and receptors. At the end of the activity students will be able to explain why hormones attach themselves to certain cells but not to others.

Objectives

Students:

\checkmark explain that hormones link with certain receptors but not with others.

\checkmark demonstrate how hormones link with certain receptors but not with others.

Student Materials

  • Activity Report
  • Glue stick or bottle of glue (per team if possible);
  • Scissors (per team)

Teacher Materials

  • Activity Report Answer Key

Advance Preparation

Make sure that there are enough scissors and glue available.

Estimated Time 30 minutes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Physical Education/Health Have half the class represent cells. Divide the cells into five equal groups. Assign each group a different arm position, for example, right arm up, left arm to the side, or both hands clasped. These positions represent receptor sites on the cell. The other half of the class represents hormones. Divide the hormones into five groups, and give them each an arm position that corresponds to, or links with, the positions held by the receptor sites. Have the cells scatter themselves around the room, then freeze in position. Next, tell the hormones to flow through the cells until they come to one that matches their arm position. The cell and the receptor should then link up and wait until as many hormones as possible have found receptors.

After playing the game, ask students to explain why this game represents hormones and receptors.

Social Science Have students identify other examples of lock-key arrangements in the world around them. For example, some banks are designed to sort coins by shape and size.

Prerequisites and Background Information

None required

IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 4-1 Ask students to explain why only the correct key will open any given lock. Explain that hormones and receptors work on the same principle-only the receptors and hormones that “match” each other work together.

Step 1 Review the portion of the text that describes the way receptors work. Divide the class into pairs or teams. Distribute Activity Reports and review the Instructions and Procedure. Ask one member of each team to get the scissors and the glue.

Steps 2-5 Give the class 15 minutes to cut out the pieces and glue them in place.

Step 6 When they are done, ask them to discuss the process as a group, then answer the two questions on the back of the Activity Report.

Conclude Activity 4-1 by discussing the answers to the questions as a class.

ASSESS

Use the finished product and the Activity Report to assess if students can

 \checkmark explain that hormones link with certain receptors but not with others.

 \checkmark demonstrate how hormones link with certain receptors but not with others.

What Do You Think?

What do you think would happen if the body didn't begin producing more and different hormones at puberty?

What Do You Think?

Now that you know something about what hormones can do, what do you think is meant by the phrase “raging hormones”? Why is the term often used when talking about adolescents?

Activity 4-1: Glands and Hormones – Activity Report Answer Key

  • Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
  1. In your own words, explain how hormones link up with specific cells.
  2. List three things that hormones can cause cells to do. If you are unsure, check back in your text.
  • A suggested response will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org.

How can a small gland like the pituitary produce so many hormones?

Social Feedback Students create stories or poems that describe a social feedback system.

The feedback system discussed here is a negative feedback system. Why? What might a positive feedback system be?

Activity 4-2: All That Happens at Puberty

PLAN

Summary Students act out the roles of various hormones and body parts in order to see how the hormones of puberty affect change and growth. They have to understand their roles, give commands, and locate the next part of the chain.

Objectives

Students:

\checkmark assume the role of one of the hormones or organs important in puberty.

\checkmark demonstrate a knowledge of the part that the hormone or organ plays in overall development.

Student Materials

  • Resources 1 and 2
  • Name card; Role card; Construction paper; Scissors (unless you precut the construction paper); Markers

Teacher Materials

  • 1 set of name cards per 18 students
  • 1 set of role cards per 18 students
  • 1 set of intact role cards to use as a guide for giving directions during the relay

Advance Preparation

Decide how you will group your class. There are 18 roles. You can select performers and have the other students watch, or, with enough students, you can have two or more separate groups. It is also possible to give some students more than one role, or to eliminate the egg, sperm, bone and tissue, or muscle cards. Another way to include more students is to have two or more of some cards, for example, two adrenal glands or two or more testosterone cards, since some roles have more than one job.

Copy one set of name cards and one set of role cards for each group. Cut out the cards.

Decide where you will conduct the activity. Since it works best if students can spread out in a fairly open space, the gym, lunchroom, or classroom with chairs pushed back works best.

Gather the necessary supplies.

Estimated Time 30-40 minutes

Interdisciplinary Connections

This Activity has Science/Health connections. It can be expanded to include:

Science If you wish to make the above activity a little more complex, have students turn the background information on their role cards into part of their script. For example, the hypothalamus could say, “Hi, I'm the hypothalamus and I'm located above the pituitary gland. I produce GnRH and send it to the pituitary gland. I also. . .”

Art Have students, as groups or individuals, create a chart using cartoon-type characters to explain the role of each part in the chain of hormones and glands.

Prerequisites and Background Information

Students should have read the text through Section 4.

Students need to know the parts of the reproductive system from earlier sections.

IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 4-2 by explaining to the students that this activity will put together all the pieces from the previous sections and show how hormones influence the growth and development they have been studying.

Step 1 Review the information in Section 4 with your students. Review the Instructions and the Procedure.

Steps 2-4 Group students and pass out the name cards and role cards. Let them have a few minutes to make their name tags. Some students may want to shape their tags to reflect their role or draw appropriate pictures on them.

Step 5 Identify the player who has the hypothalamus. Tell that student that he or she will go first. Walk students through the first step or two before you have them go back and start on their own. Try to stand back and let them work out the glitches on their own, but step in when needed. You might want to repeat the activity a few times until it becomes smooth, and they can see all the connections.

Step 6 If you have two or more groups perform, they may either work simultaneously or take turns and watch each other.

Conclude Activity 4-2 with a class discussion about the process.

ASSESS

Use the relay and the discussion that follows to assess if students can

\checkmark identify where hormones are produced.

\checkmark explain the function of hormones.

\checkmark describe and demonstrate how hormones fit together.

Close your eyes and imagine your hormonal system at work. Hormones are surging through your body, passing in and out of some cells, binding to others. What does it feel like? What might it look like artistically, not scientifically? Draw your impression of what's going on under your skin or describe it with words.

Review Questions/Answers

  • Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
  1. What are hormones? Name three body functions they affect.
  2. What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?
  3. How do cells know which hormones to bind to?
  4. What is the difference between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus?
  5. How do FSH and LH stimulate the production of other hormones?
  6. What do testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone do in males and females?
  7. What is a feedback system? How does it work?

Activity 4-1 Report: Glands and Hormones (Student Reproducible)

Refer to the Activity Guide on p. 00 of your text.

1. In your own words, explain how hormones link up with specific cells.

2. List three things that hormones can cause cells to do. If you are unsure, check back in your text.

a. ____________________________________

b. ____________________________________

c. ____________________________________

Activity 4-2 Resource 1: All That Happens at Puberty (Student Reproducible)

Name Cards
HYPOTHALAMUS PITUITARY GLAND
GnRH HGH
FSH IN THE MALE FSH IN THE FEMALE
LH IN THE MALE LH IN THE FEMALE
ESTROGEN PROGESTERONE
OVARIES TESTES
ADRENAL GLANDS TESTOSTERONE
EGG SPERM
BONE & TISSUE MUSCLE

Activity 4-2 Resource 2: All That Happens at Puberty (Student Reproducible)

Role Cards
HYPOTHALAMUS PITUITARY GLAND
  • You are located above the pituitary gland.
  • You produce GnRH and send it to the pituitary gland to tell it when to release hormones.
  • You do this when the levels of testosterone rise or fall and signal you to slow down or increase production.

“GnRH, go tell the pituitary gland to release hormones!” (to start the game)

“Okay everybody, slow down production of hormones!” (to end the game)

  • You are a pea-sized organ located at the base of the brain.
  • You are controlled by the hypothalamus.
  • When it sends GnRH, you:
  1. produce and release HGH.
  2. produce and release FSH.
  3. produce and release LH.
  • You also control the adrenal gland and tell it to release testosterone.

“HGH, go build bone and tissue!”

“FSH and LH, go to the testes in the male!”

“FSH and LH, go to the ovaries in the female!”

“Adrenal glands, produce testosterone!”

GnRH

  • You are a hormone produced by the hypothalamus.
  • The hypothalamus sends you to the pituitary gland, where you cause the pituitary gland to produce and release the hormones LH and FSH.

“Pituitary gland, make FSH and LH!”

HGH

  • You are a hormone produced by the pituitary gland.
  • You regulate growth of bone and tissue.
  • When the pituitary tells you to, you do your job.

“Bone and tissue, it's time to grow!”

FSH IN THE MALE

  • You are a hormone produced by the pituitary gland after a signal from the hypothalamus.
  • The pituitary gland sends you to the testes.
  • There you stimulate the production of sperm cells.

“Testes, make sperm cells!”

FSH IN THE FEMALE

  • You are a hormone produced by the pituitary gland after a signal from the hypothalamus.
  • The pituitary gland sends you to the ovaries.
  • You tell the ovaries to make an egg mature in the follicle cells.

“Ovaries, make an egg mature in the follicle cells!”

LH IN THE MALE

  • You are a hormone produced by the pituitary gland after a signal from the hypothalamus.
  • You are sent to the testes by the pituitary gland.
  • When you are there, you make the cells produce testosterone.

“Testes, make testosterone!”

LH IN THE FEMALE

  • You are a hormone produced by the pituitary gland after a signal from the hypothalamus.
  • You are sent to the ovaries by the pituitary gland.
  • After LH makes an egg mature, you cause the follicle cells to produce progesterone.

“Ovaries, produce progesterone in the follicle cells!”

ESTROGEN

  • You are produced in the follicle cells of the ovaries as the egg matures at a signal from the hormone FSH.
  • You help with sexual maturation, the menstrual cycle, and reproduction.

“I'm helping make sexual maturation, the menstrual cycle, and reproduction possible!”

PROGESTERONE

  • You are produced in the ovaries by the follicle cells after the egg matures at a signal from the hormone LH.
  • You help with sexual maturation, the menstrual cycle, and reproduction.

“I'm helping make sexual maturation, the menstrual cycle, and reproduction possible!”

OVARIES and FOLLICLE CELLS

  • You are located in the lower abdomen.
  • The hormone FSH tells you to make an egg in the follicle cells mature.
  • As the egg matures, you produce estrogen in the follicle cells.
  • Once the egg is mature, the hormone LH tells you to make progesterone.

“Egg, it's time to mature!”

“I'll make estrogen while you mature!”

“Now I'll make progesterone!”

TESTES

  • The pituitary gland sends the hormone FSH to you
  • It tells you to stimulate the production of sperm cells.
  • The pituitary sends LH to you. It tells you to produce testosterone.
  • When there is too much testosterone, the rising level sends a signal to the hypothalamus and the pituitary to slow down production of hormones.

“Okay, I'll make sperm now!”

“Now I'm making testosterone!”

“Oops, testosterone, I think. I've made too much, so send signal!”

BONE and TISSUE

  • The hormone HGH makes bone and tissues grow.

“Thanks, HGH! We're growing now.”

MUSCLES

  • Muscle growth is affected by the hormone testosterone in both males and females.

“Hooray! We're growing now!”

EGG

  • You are stored in the follicle cells of the ovaries in the female.
  • No new eggs are formed during puberty.
  • You mature at a signal from the hormone FSH.

“Okay, FSH, I'll mature now!”

SPERM

  • You are produced and stored in the testes of the male.
  • You begin being produced at puberty at a signal from the hormone testosterone and continue to be produced throughout a male's lifetime.

“Okay, I'm ready to find an egg!”

ADRENAL GLANDS

  • You are located above the kidneys.
  • You are controlled by the pituitary gland.
  • When it tells you to, you produce testosterone and release it.

“Testosterone, go build muscle!”

TESTOSTERONE

  • You are produced in the testes at a command from LH, and told to stimulate the production of more sperm.
  • You are also produced in the adrenal glands at a command from the pituitary gland and told to build more muscle in both males and females.
  • The level of testosterone in the body lets the hypothalamus and pituitary know when it is time to slow down or increase the production of hormones.

“I'm going to go build muscle: Grow, muscle!”

“Testes, make more sperm!”

“Oops, there's too much of me! Hypothalamus and pituitary, slow down your production of hormones!”

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