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Activity 5-1: How Does the Menstrual Cycle Work?

PLAN

Summary Students learn that menstruation results from three cycles working together by analyzing charts and diagrams that illustrate the hormonal, ovarian, and menstrual cycles. They develop their own descriptions of the relationships among the cycles.

Objectives

Students:

\checkmark interpret data from related charts and diagrams.

\checkmark explain the relations hip among the hormonal, ovarian, and menstrual cycles during each phase of menstruation.

Student Materials

  • Activity Report

Teacher Materials

  • Activity Report Answer Key

Advance Preparation

Carefully review the charts and diagrams prior to teaching the lesson. They are complex.

Estimated Time 30-40 minutes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Art Create a page from a medical calendar for a month, with diagrams of changes in the ovaries and uterus as the illustrations at the top, and little notes on the appropriate days of the week. For example, on Tuesday, June 3, the notation might read: “On this day, the levels of both FSH and LH begin to rise . . .”

Prerequisites and Background Information

Students should have knowledge of the process of menstruation and should have read Section 5.

IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 5-1 by explaining that, like most things in life, the menstrual cycle is not simple. It is a result of the interaction of many different elements. In this activity students observe how all the different parts of the process relate.

Step 1 Review the information from Section 5 on menstruation. Review the Introduction and Procedure. Determine how familiar students are with reading graphs. Model how to read the data. Make sure they understand how each set of graphs and diagrams fits together.

Steps 2-4 Distribute the Activity Reports. Allow the students 20 minutes to analyze the graphs and record their answers. Depending on your class, you may want to have the students work alone, in pairs, or as teams. Another option is to have them work alone, then pair with a partner to compare and refine their answers.

Conclude Activity 5-1 by asking several members of the class to share their answers or by creating a class answer key.

ASSESS

Use the Activity Report responses to assess if students can

\checkmark interpret data from related charts and diagrams.

\checkmark explain the relationship among the hormonal, ovarian, and menstrual cycles during each phase of menstruation.

Activity 5-1: How Does the Menstrual Cycle Work? – Activity Report Answer Key

  • Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.

[Insert Image Here]

Days 1-7

  1. What is happening in the ovaries?
  2. What changes occur in the uterus?
  3. What is happening to the levels of ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone?
  4. What is happening to the pituitary hormones, FSH and LH?
  5. What relationships do you see between all these events?

Days 7-14

  1. What is happening in the ovaries?
  2. What changes occur in the uterus?
  3. What is happening to the levels of ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone?
  4. What is happening to the pituitary hormones, FSH and LH?
  5. What relationships do you see between all these events?

Days 14-21

  1. What is happening in the ovaries?
  2. What changes occur in the uterus?
  3. What is happening to levels of the ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone?
  4. What is happening to the pituitary hormones, FSH and LH?
  5. What relationships do you see between all these events?

Days 21-28

  1. What is happening in the ovaries?
  2. What changes occur in the uterus?
  3. What is happening to levels of the ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone?
  4. What is happening to the pituitary hormones, FSH and LH?
  5. What relationships do you see between all these events?

A suggested response will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org.

  • How can a girl best keep herself healthy before and during menstruation?
  • List the factors which may affect the regularity of menstruation.

What Do You Think?

1. Some judges have acquitted (let go) women accused of violent crimes committed while suffering from severe PMS. This is based on the argument that people under conditions of diminished responsibility cannot be held accountable for what they do. Do you agree or not? What are your reasons?

2. If people cannot be held responsible for their actions during periods of temporary physiological circumstances, should they be allowed to engage in risky activities where others may be hurt (flying an airplane)?

Girls: The onset of menstruation is not predictable. What would you do if your period started during school?

Boys: Voice changes are unpredictable, and sometimes so are erections. What would you do if your voice kept cracking while you were trying to give a presentation in class?

Review Questions/Answers

  • Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
  1. What is the difference between the ovarian cycle and the menstrual cycle?
  2. At the time of ovulation, describe where the menstrual, ovarian, and hormonal cycles are.
  3. When does menstruation usually occur during puberty?
  4. What are the pros and cons of tampon and sanitary pad use?
  5. What common discomforts might a girl experience? Explain.
  6. List the factors that may affect the regularity of menstruation.

Activity 5-1 Report: How Does the Menstrual Cycle Work? (Student Reproducible)

Fill in the blank boxes on the chart. Then answer the questions that follow.

Days 1-7

1. What is happening in the ovaries?

2. What changes occur in the uterus?

3. What is happening to the levels of ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone?

4. What is happening to the pituitary hormones, FSH and LH?

5. What relationships do you see between all these events?

Days 7-14

1. What is happening in the ovaries?

2. What changes occur in the uterus?

3. What is happening to levels of the ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone?

4. What is happening to the pituitary hormones, FSH and LH?

5. What relationships do you see between all these events?

Days 14-21

1. What is happening in the ovaries?

2. What changes occur in the uterus?

3. What is happening to levels of the ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone?

4. What is happening to the pituitary hormones, FSH and LH?

5. What relationships do you see between all these events?

Days 21-28

1. What is happening in the ovaries?

2. What changes occur in the uterus?

3. What is happening to levels of the ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone?

4. What is happening to the pituitary hormones, FSH and LH?

5. What relationships do you see between all these events?

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