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# 4.3: Activities and Answer Keys

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Activity 3-1: Changes in Girls during Puberty

### PLAN

Summary In this activity students use a graph to identify the types of changes that occur during puberty, when they most commonly occur, what the normal range is for each occurrence, and over how long a period of time the changes usually take place. The students then use the information they have gathered to put together a chart of changes during puberty.

Objectives

Students:

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} read a graph.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} construct a chart using data from the graph.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify the normal time range for change in girls during puberty.

Student Materials

• Activity Report

Teacher Materials

Prepare a transparency of the graph if useful for your class. (Optional)

Estimated Time 30 minutes (Allow more time if students are unfamiliar with reading graphs.)

Interdisciplinary Connection

Math This activity involves the use of graphs and charts.

Prerequisites and Background Information

Students should have some knowledge of how to read a graph.

### IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 3-1 by referring to Activity 2-1: How Tall? in which students discovered that there was a wide range of normal heights. Explain that this is true for other areas of growth and development as well. Review terms from the chapter that will be used in the graph, such as pubic hair, menstruation, and menarche. Go over the Activity in the text with the students.

Step 1 Distribute the Activity Reports and review directions.

Step 2 Allow students time to complete the assignment individually, in pairs, or in small groups.

Conclude Activity 3-1 by having students compare answers and create a class chart.

### ASSESS

Use the Activity Report responses to assess if students can

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify “normal range” for the developments and changes that occur in girls during puberty.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} read a graph.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} create a chart from graphed data.

## Activity 3-1: Changes in Girls during Puberty – Activity Report Answer Key

• Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
1. Look at Figure 3.2 in your textbook. It shows the changes that take place in girls during puberty and the ages at which those changes are likely to occur.
2. Use the graph to make a chart. The chart will list:
1. the four major changes that occur in girls during puberty.
2. the most common times for them to occur.
3. the wide range of normal during which they can happen.

To find the most common time for each event to occur look between the beginning and end of the dark part of each bar. To find the normal range for each event look between the beginning and the end of the dotted part of each bar. The bars do not start and end exactly at the listed ages, so your answers should be approximate, such as “between age 12 and 13” or “almost at age 15.”

A.

1. The change most likely to occur first is:
2. The most common time for it to occur is
3. The normal range during which it can occur is

B.

1. The change most likely to occur second is
2. The most common time for it to occur is
3. The normal range during which it can occur is

C.

1. The change most likely to occur third is
2. The most common time for it to occur is
3. The normal range during which it can occur is

D.

1. The change most likely to occur fourth is
2. The most common time for it to occur is
3. The normal range during which it can occur is

What Do You Think?

Can you think of any reasons why hair growth varies among cultural groups? For example, Asians don't grow facial hair; Mediterranean and Middle Eastern men tend to have dark hair and heavy beards.

A suggested response will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org.

What is the function of the scrotum?

What Do You Think?

Why do we talk more about (and have a term for) a girl's first menstruation (menarche) than a boy's first ejaculation? Are they similar or different experiences?

## Activity 3-2: Changes in Boys during Puberty

### PLAN

Summary In this activity students use a graph to identify the types of changes that occur during puberty, when they most commonly occur, what the normal range is for each occurrence, and over how long a period of time the changes usually take place. The students then use the information they have gathered to put together a chart of changes during puberty.

Objectives

Students:

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} read a graph.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} construct a chart using data from the graph.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify the normal time range for change in boys during puberty.

Student Materials

• Activity Report

Teacher Materials

Prepare a transparency of the graph if useful for your class. (Optional)

Estimated Time 30 minutes (Allow more time if students are unfamiliar with reading graphs.)

Interdisciplinary Connection

Math This activity involves the use of graphs and charts.

Prerequisites and Background Information

Students should have some knowledge of how to read a graph.

### IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 3-2 by referring to Activity 3-1: Changes in Girls during Puberty, in which students discovered that there is a wide range of normal. Explain that this is true for boys as well. Review terms from the chapter that will be used in the graph, such as pubic hair and testes. Go over the Activity in the text with students.

Step 1 Distribute the Activity Reports and review directions.

Step 2 Allow students time to complete the assignment individually, in pairs, or in small groups.

Conclude Activity 3-2 by having students compare answers and create a class chart.

### ASSESS

Use the Activity Report responses to assess if students can

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify “normal range” for the developments and changes that occur in boys during puberty.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} read a graph.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} create a chart from graphed data.

## Activity 3-2: Changes in Boys during Puberty – Activity Report Answer Key

• Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
1. Look at Figure 3.5 in your textbook. It shows the changes that take place in boys during puberty and the ages at which those changes are likely to occur.
2. Use the graph to make a chart. The chart will list:
1. the four major changes that occur in boys during puberty.
2. the most common times for them to occur.
3. the wide range of normal during which they can happen.

To find the most common time for each event to occur look at the beginning and end of the dark part of each bar. To find the normal range for each event look at the beginning and the end of the dotted part of each bar. The bars do not start and end exactly at the listed ages, so your answers should be approximate, such as “between age 12 and 13” or “almost at age 15.”

A.

1. The change most likely to occur first is:
2. The most common time for it to occur is
3. The normal range during which it can occur is

B.

1. The change most likely to occur second is
2. The most common time for it to occur is
3. The normal range during which it can occur is

C.

1. The change most likely to occur third is
2. The most common time for it to occur is
3. The normal range during which it can occur is

D.

1. The change most likely to occur fourth is
2. The most common time for it to occur is
3. The normal range during which it can occur is

## Activity 3-3: Knowing about Each Other

### PLAN

Summary Students find out what worries boys and girls most about the changes that take place during puberty by compiling their own lists of worries, comparing their list with other lists written by members of the same sex, and then discussing the lists with members of the opposite sex.

Objectives

Students:

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} express their own concerns over the changes of puberty.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} listen to the concerns of others.

Student Materials

• Activity Report

Teacher Materials

None required

Estimated Time 20-30 minutes

Interdisciplinary Connections

This activity has Guidance and Health connections. It can be extended to include:

Language Arts Ask students to respond orally or in writing to the following statements as they relate to the changes of puberty.

1. The kinds of statements that bother me or make me uncomfortable are _______.
2. The kinds of actions that bother me or make me uncomfortable are __________.

Then ask students to role-play appropriate ways to respond to these types of statements or behaviors, so that they can feel more confident about standing up to situations that make them uncomfortable.

Prerequisites and Background Information

Students should know what the changes are that take place during puberty as explained in Section 3.

### IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 3-3 by asking students if they worry about the same things now that they worried about 5 years ago. Then ask if they think they worry about the same types of things that adults do. Tell them that many factors affect what we worry about, and that gender plays a role, especially during puberty. Discuss what students have learned about the changes that take place in boys and girls during puberty. Mention that we all need to know about the changes that are taking place in our own bodies, but that it is also important to learn about the changes that members of the opposite sex are going through, too, and that these changes aren't always easy. Tell them that in this activity they try to find out which changes worry boys and girls the most.

Steps 1-2 Review the Introduction and Procedure. Distribute the Activity Report and allow the students 5-6 minutes to write down their individual answers to questions 1 and 2.

Step 3 Divide the class into same-sex groups. The number of groups will depend on how large a group you think is best for your students. Ask each group to compare the group members' lists, keep a tally of how many times the same idea appears, and make a single list for the group of the top five changes that concern boys and the top five changes that concern girls. (Allow 10 minutes.)

Step 4 Have each group take turns sharing its final list either verbally or by writing it on the chalkboard.

Steps 5-6 Ask the class to study the lists to see if boys and girls have accurately predicted what it is that worries the opposite sex. If they have not, then ask the class to discuss the differences following the procedure indicated on the Activity Guide.

Conclude Activity 3-3 by explaining that if we understand the changes that we are all going through, and are aware of what worries us about these changes, then we will be less likely to make statements, or behave in ways, that might embarrass each other.

### ASSESS

Use the Activity Report responses, group discussion, and whole class discussion to assess if students can

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify the changes boys go through during puberty.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} identify the changes girls go through during puberty.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} express their own concerns about the changes of puberty.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} listen empathetically to the concerns of others.

## Activity Report 3-3: Knowing about Each Other – Activity Report Answer Key

• Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
1. List the five changes that you think are hardest for boys to go through at puberty.
2. List the five changes that you think are hardest for girls to go through at puberty.
3. List the five changes your group thought were the hardest for boys to go through.
4. List the five changes that your group thought were the hardest for girls to go through.

What Do You Think?

How can you best evaluate and control your environment? Give an example of one element in your environment that you can and want to change.

A suggested response will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org.

According to the Did You Know? on this page, the age of menarche has come down significantly in the last 100 years. Based on what you know about factors influencing puberty, what might explain this trend? This trend has stopped at about age 12.8 years. How might you explain why the trend has not continued?

What Do You Think?

With medical advances available today, it is possible to medically treat children who do not enter puberty at the average age. Should we treat children who have not yet entered puberty at the average age or wait for nature to take its course? Why or why not? How long should we wait?

## Activity 3-4: Factors Influencing Puberty

### PLAN

Summary Students identify those factors from Section 3 that influence growth and development at puberty. They categorize those factors according to whether or not they have control over the factors, then state ways in which the factors can have positive or negative effects. Students come up with a plan to maximize the positive effects of those factors over which they have some control.

Objectives

Students:

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} recognize factors influencing puberty.

\begin{align*}\checkmark\end{align*} distinguish between positive and negative factors within their control.

Student Materials

• Activity Report

Teacher Materials

Decide on group size.

Estimated Time 30-40 minutes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Language Arts If you feel that your class can handle the discussion, ask them to debate what is more important, the factors over which you have control, or those over which you have no control. Another debate could center around whether or not society has a responsibility, a right, or no responsibility to ensure proper nutrition and a healthy environment for its children.

Physical Education/Health Since physical activity is a factor which influences healthy development and is also within some control of the student, ask each member of the class to analyze his or her physical activities and make a plan for adding healthy activities if they are needed. Discuss activities that might be easy to do with limited time, space, or equipment. (Some examples are isometrics, stretching, situps, push-ups, and walking.)

Social Studies Have students predict what impact situations such as war or famine might have on children going through puberty at the time of crisis.

Prerequisites and Background Information

Students should have read Section 3.

### IMPLEMENT

Introduce Activity 3-4 by reviewing with students the factors discussed in Section 3 that affect puberty. Point out that these are not the only factors that influence growth and development. For example, this section does not discuss the role of hormones.

Step 1 Divide the class into groups. The recommended group size is 4-5 students.

Give each group an Activity Report. Review the Introduction and Procedure of the activity. Explain that it may not always be easy to tell which category a factor fits into and that not all members of the group will agree. They will have to decide how they will handle situations involving disagreements. Point out that sometimes a factor might realistically fit in both categories. For example, the students may not be able to control what is cooked at home, but they can probably control how much they eat. They can also try to influence the menu by talking about it with the adult in charge. They might also try to add a third category if they wish, “Things that can be controlled, but not by me, and how I can work to change that.”

Step 2 Give the groups 15-20 minutes to fill out their charts and write their paragraphs. Some groups may need longer.

Steps 3-4 Reconvene the class and have each group share its suggestions for positively influencing healthy development.

Conclude Activity 3-4 by having the class combine and summarize the ideas.

### ASSESS

Use the group charts to assess the students' understanding that many factors influence puberty, some in a positive way, some in a negative way, and that while some of those factors are within our control, others are not. Use the class discussion and the group paragraphs to assess the students' understanding that there are things they can do to positively impact their growth and development.

## Activity 3-4: Factors Influencing Puberty – Activity Report Answer Key

• Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.

Some factors influencing puberty include the following.

hereditygenesairfamilyfriendssocial classfoodsunethnicityphysical activityemotional factors\begin{align*}&\text{heredity} && \text{family} && \text{food} && \text{physical activity}\\ &\text{genes} && \text{friends} && \text{sun} && \text{emotional factors}\\ &\text{air} && \text{social class} && \text{ethnicity}\end{align*}

In the chart below, list those factors that your group decides you have very little or no control over. Put the factors in the first column. Then, in the next two columns, list one positive way and one negative way that each factor can influence your development.

Why did you decide you had little or no control over these factors? Did everyone in your group agree?

In the chart below, list those factors that your group decides you have some or a great deal of control over. Put the factors in the first column. Then, in the next two columns, list at least one positive and one negative way that each factor can influence your development.

As a group, write a paragraph telling other students what they can do to positively impact their growth and development.

Are you ready for all the changes that puberty will bring to you? What changes of puberty do you think will be the easiest and hardest to deal with for you? Why? What are the changes of puberty that you are actually the most excited about? What do you look forward to about growing up and changing?

• Sample answers to these questions will be provided upon request. Please send an email to teachers-requests@ck12.org to request sample answers.
1. What is the difference between a primary and a secondary sexual characteristic?
2. Give two primary changes for boys, and two primary changes for girls.
3. Give two secondary changes for boys, and two secondary changes for girls.
4. What are the major parts of the female reproductive system?
5. What are some of the reasons a female might have irregular periods?
6. Name three factors affecting puberty you can control and three factors you cannot control.

## Activity 3-1 Report: Changes in Girls during Puberty (Student Reproducible)

1. Look at Figure 3.2 in your textbook. It shows the changes that take place in girls during puberty and the ages at which those changes are likely to occur.

2. Use the graph to make a chart. The chart will list:

a. the four major changes that occur in girls during puberty.

b. the most common times for them to occur.

c. the wide range of normal during which they can happen.

To find the most common time for each event to occur look between the beginning and end of the dark part of each bar. To find the normal range for each event look between the beginning and the end of the dotted part of each bar. The bars do not start and end exactly at the listed ages, so your answers should be approximate, such as “between age 12 and 13” or “almost at age 15.”

A.

1. The change most likely to occur first is ________________.
2. The most common time for it to occur is ________________.
3. The normal range during which it can occur is ________________.

B.

1. The change most likely to occur second is ________________.
2. The most common time for it to occur is ________________.
3. The normal range during which it can occur is ________________.

C.

1. The change most likely to occur third is ________________.
2. The most common time for it to occur is ________________.
3. The normal range during which it can occur is ________________.

D.

1. The change most likely to occur fourth is ________________.
2. The most common time for it to occur is ________________.
3. The normal range during which it can occur is ________________.

## Activity 3-2 Report: Changes in Boys during Puberty (Student Reproducible)

1. Look at Figure 3.5 in your textbook. It shows the changes that take place in boys during puberty and the ages at which those changes are likely to occur.

2. Use the graph to make a chart. The chart will list:

a. the four major changes that occur in boys during puberty.

b. the most common times for them to occur.

c. the wide range of normal during which they can happen.

To find the most common time for each event to occur, look between the beginning and end of the dark part of each bar. To find the normal range for each event, look between the beginning and the end of the dotted part of each bar. The bars do not start and end exactly at the listed ages, so your answers should be approximate, such as “between age 12 and 13” or “almost at age 15.”

A.

1. The change most likely to occur first is _______________.
2. The most common time for it to occur is _______________.
3. The normal range during which it can occur is _______________.

B.

1. The change most likely to occur second is _______________.
2. The most common time for it to occur is _______________.
3. The normal range during which it can occur is _______________.

C.

1. The change most likely to occur third is _______________.
2. The most common time for it to occur is _______________.
3. The normal range during which it can occur is _______________.

D.

1. The change most likely to occur fourth is _______________.
2. The most common time for it to occur is _______________.
3. The normal range during which it can occur is _______________.

## Activity 3-3 Report: Knowing about Each Other (Student Reproducible)

1. List the five changes that you think are hardest for boys to go through at puberty.

a. ____________________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________________

c. ____________________________________________________

d. ____________________________________________________

e. ____________________________________________________

2. List the five changes that you think are hardest for girls to go through at puberty.

a. ____________________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________________

c. ____________________________________________________

d. ____________________________________________________

e. ____________________________________________________

3. List the five changes your group thought were the hardest for boys to go through.

a. ____________________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________________

c. ____________________________________________________

d. ____________________________________________________

e. ____________________________________________________

4. List the five changes that your group thought were the hardest for girls to go through.

a. ____________________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________________

c. ____________________________________________________

d. ____________________________________________________

e. ____________________________________________________

## Activity 3-4 Report: Factors Influencing Puberty (Student Reproducible)

Look at the list of factors influencing puberty that were mentioned in Section 3.

hereditygenesairfamilyfriendssocial classfoodsunethnicityphysical activityemotional factors\begin{align*}&\text{heredity} && \text{family} && \text{food} && \text{physical activity}\\ &\text{genes} && \text{friends} && \text{sun} && \text{emotional factors}\\ &\text{air} && \text{social class} && \text{ethnicity}\end{align*}

In the chart below, list those factors that your group decides you have very little or no control over. Put the factors in the first column. Then, in the next two columns, list one positive way and one negative way that each factor can influence your development.

Factor Positive Effect Negative Effect

Why did you decide you had little or no control over these factors? Did everyone in your group agree?

In the chart below, list those factors that your group decides you have some or a great deal of control over. Put the factors in the first column. Then, in the next two columns, list at least one positive and one negative way that each factor can influence your development.

Factor Positive Effect Negative Effect

As a group, write a paragraph telling other students what they can do to positively impact their growth and development.

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