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Keep in mind that the x-axis will most likely be in Radians, if not it will be in Degrees.
A vertical translation is a shift in a graph up or down along the "y" axis, generated by adding a constant to the original function.
Hint: Vertical means upright, or going up and down. The "y" axis is upright also
This is what a vertical translation would look like on a graph but in a function you would have to add or subtract by a number depending if you want to shift the graph up or down.
This is the same as a vertical translation only that it shifts the graphs left or right
Caution: When shifting the graph, keep in mind the subtraction or addition sign, these depict whether the graph shifts to the left or to the right. If there is a negative sign then the graph shift to the left but if there is a positive sign then then the graph shifts to the left!
The amplitude of a wave is a measure of the wave's height.
Tip: For the image above, the center line is at y=0 and the amplitude affects the height above and below that line by two!
How can the range be affected by changing the amplitude?
Period and Frequency
The period of a wave is the horizontal distance traveled before the 'y' values begin to repeat.
Sine and cosine will always will always have a period of 2 but will not be 2when the function is changed
TIP: just remember that the period is when the the values will repeat again.
The frequency of a wave is number of complete waves every units.
Since the period and frequency is inversley related, what happes to the period as the frequency increases? Click here for guidence.
or , where is the amplitude, is the frequency, is the horizontal translation, and is the vertical translation.
Tip: Always start with the vertical translation and then horizontal translation so that it makes the graphing much easier.