You are quite likely familiar with the values of trig functions for a variety of angles. Angles such as , , and are common. However, if you were asked to find the value of a trig function for a more rarely used angle, could you do so? Or what if you were asked to find the value of a trig function for a sum of angles? For example, if you were asked to find could you?

Read on, and in this section, you'll get practice with simplifying trig functions of angles using the sum and difference formulas.

### Sum and Difference Formulas

Quite frequently one of the main obstacles to solving a problem in trigonometry is the inability to transform the problem into a form that makes it easier to solve. Sum and difference formulas can be very valuable in helping with this.

Here we'll get some extra practice putting the sum and difference formulas to good use. If you haven't gone through them yet, you might want to review the sections on the Sum and Difference Formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent.

#### Solve using the Sum Formula

Verify the identity

#### Solve using the Difference Formula

Solve in the interval .

First, get by itself, by dividing both sides by .

Now, expand the left side using the sine difference formula.

The when is .

#### Solve using the Sum Formula

Find all the solutions for in the interval .

Get the by itself and then take the square root.

Now, use the cosine sum formula to expand and solve.

The is in Quadrants III and IV, so and .

### Examples

#### Example 1

Earlier, you were asked to find , use the sine sum formula:

#### Example 2

Find all solutions to , when is between .

To find all the solutions, between , we need to expand using the sum formula and isolate the .

This is true when , or

#### Example 3

Solve for all values of between for .

First, solve for .

Now, use the tangent sum formula to expand for when .

This is true when or .

If the tangent sum formula to expand for when , we get no solution as shown.

Therefore, the tangent sum formula cannot be used in this case. However, since we know that when or , we can solve for as follows.

Therefore, all of the solutions are

#### Example 4

Find all solutions to , when is between .

To solve, expand each side:

Set the two sides equal to each other:

As a decimal, this is , so and .

### Review

Prove each identity.

Use sum and difference formulas to help you graph each function.

Solve each equation on the interval .

### Review (Answers)

To see the Review answers, open this PDF file and look for section 3.9.