You've been working hard in your math class, and are getting to be quite the expert on trig functions. Then one day your friend, who is a year ahead of you in school, approaches you.

"So, you're doing pretty well in math? And you're good with trig functions?" he asks with a smile.

"Yes," you reply confidently. "I am."

"Alright, then what's the sine of

"What? That doesn't make sense. No right triangle has an angle like that, so there's no way to define that function!" you say.

Your friend laughs. "As it turns out, it is quite possible to have trig functions of angles greater than

Is your friend just playing a joke on you, or does he mean it? Can you actually calculate

### Angles of Rotation and Trigonometric Functions

Just as it is possible to define the six trigonometric functions for angles in right triangles, we can also define the same functions in terms of angles of rotation.

Consider an angle in standard position, whose terminal side intersects a circle of radius

The point

And, we can extend these functions to include non-acute angles.

Consider an angle in standard position, such that the point

This circle is called the **unit circle**. With

Notice that in the unit circle, the sine and cosine of an angle are the

We can use the figure above to determine values of the trig functions for the quadrantal angles. For example,

#### Determining the Value of Trigonometric Functions

1. Determine the values of the six trigonometric functions.

The point (-3, 4) is a point on the terminal side of an angle in standard position. Determine the values of the six trigonometric functions of the angle.

Notice that the angle is more than 90 degrees, and that the terminal side of the angle lies in the second quadrant. This will influence the signs of the trigonometric functions.

Notice that the value of

2. Use the unit circle above to find the value of

The ordered pair for this angle is (0, 1). The cosine value is the

3. Use the unit circle above to find the value of

The ordered pair for this angle is (-1, 0). The ratio

### Examples

#### Example 1

Earlier, you were asked if you can actually calculate

Since you now know that it is possible to apply trigonometric functions to angles greater than

Therefore,

Use this figure:

to answer the following examples.

#### Example 2

Find

We can see from the "x" and "y" axes that the "x" coordinate is

#### Example 3

Find

We know that

#### Example 4

Find

We know that

### Review

Find the values of the six trigonometric functions for each angle below.

0∘ 90∘ 180∘ - \begin{align*}270^\circ\end{align*}
- Find the sine of an angle that goes through the point \begin{align*}(\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2},\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2})\end{align*}.
- Find the cosine of an angle that goes through the point \begin{align*}(\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2},\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2})\end{align*}.
- Find the tangent of an angle that goes through the point \begin{align*}(\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2},\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2})\end{align*}.
- Find the secant of an angle that goes through the point \begin{align*}(-\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2},\frac{1}{2})\end{align*}.
- Find the cotangent of an angle that goes through the point \begin{align*}(-\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2},-\frac{1}{2})\end{align*}.
- Find the cosecant of an angle that goes through the point \begin{align*}(\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2},\frac{1}{2})\end{align*}.
- Find the sine of an angle that goes through the point \begin{align*}(\frac{1}{2},-\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2})\end{align*}.
- Find the cosine of an angle that goes through the point \begin{align*}(-\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2},\frac{1}{2})\end{align*}.
- The sine of an angle in the first quadrant is \begin{align*}0.25\end{align*}. What is the cosine of this angle?
- The cosine of an angle in the first quadrant is \begin{align*}0.8\end{align*}. What is the sine of this angle?
- The sine of an angle in the first quadrant is \begin{align*}0.15\end{align*}. What is the cosine of this angle?

### Review (Answers)

To see the Review answers, open this PDF file and look for section 1.17.