The World of Science
An introduction to scientific investigation and the scope of physical science.
HS What is Earth Science?
This chapter covers the scientific method and the various branches of Earth science.
The metric system is the most widely used system of measurement in the world. It is a more universal measurement standard as compared to the customary system used in the United States.
Metric to metric conversions
Metric to English and English to Metric Conversions
To make sense of our data, we must be certain that we are using the correct system of measurement, or make the necessary conversions.
HS Observing and Exploring Space
This chapter begins with a discussion of electromagnetic radiation, types of telescopes, and ways of gathering information from our universe. Information about recent and current space exploration concludes this chapter.
HS Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe
This chapter covers constellations, how stars produce light and energy, classification of stars, and stellar evolution. Groupings of stars, types of galaxies, dark matter, dark energy, and the Big Bang Theory are also included.
HS Earth, Moon, and Sun
This chapter discusses the basic properties and motions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun, including information about tides and eclipses. Discussion includes information about the Sun's layers and solar activity.
HS The Solar System
This chapter covers the motion of the planets, formation of our solar system, plus characteristics and properties of the inner and outer planets, as well as dwarf planets, meteors, asteroids, and comets.
Waves - Physical Science
Description of waves, including their characteristics, measurement, and properties.
A chapter about electromagnetic waves, including their properties and sources, an explanation of the electromagnetic spectrum.
An explanation of the properties of light, including reflection, refraction, and how vision works.
Information about sound, including how to hear it and produce it.
A discussion of motion and related concepts, such as distance, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
An explanation of forces and types of forces, including friction, gravity, and elastic force
Newton's Laws of Motion
An explanation of Newton's Laws, including the Law of Inertia, the relationship between force and acceleration, and the principle of equal and opposite forces.
Work and Machines
Information about simple and compound machines, including types of machines, work, efficiency, and mechanical advantage.
Introduction to Energy
An explanation of energy, its forms, conservation laws, and the available energy resources.
HS Earth's Energy
This chapter discusses available nonrenewable and renewable resources, including resources such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and solar, wind and water power.
An introduction to radioactivity and associated processes, including decay and producing nuclear energy.
HS Human Actions and Earth's Resources
This chapter considers human use of renewable and nonrenewable resources, availability and conservation of resources, as well as ways to conserve energy and use energy more efficiently.
HS Plate Tectonics
This chapter covers properties of Earth's interior, continental drift, seafloor spreading, theories of plate tectonic movement, plate boundaries, and landforms.
The chapter begins with discussion of stresses on rocks and mountain building. Understanding the causes of earthquakes, seismic waves, tsunami and ways to predict earthquakes are followed by information about staying safe during an earthquake.
The chapter considers how and where volcanoes form, types of magma and consequent types of eruptions, as well as different volcanic landforms associated with each.
Magnetism - Physical Science
A presentation of magnetism, including magnetic materials, and the Earth's magnetic behavior.
Electromagnetism - Physical Science
Information about the connection between electricity and magnetism, and technological applications of electromagnetism.
Electricity - Physical Science
Information about electricity, including current, resistance, and circuits.
HS Studying Earth’s Surface
This chapter informs students about different types of landforms on Earth, map projections, and the use of computers and satellites to study and understand Earth's surface.
Virginia's Physiographic Provinces
A physiographic province is a landform region, an area delineated according to similar terrain that has been shaped by a common geologic history. The State of Virginia is divided into five physiographic provinces: Coastal Plain, Piedmont Plateau, Blue Ridge, Valley and Ridge and the Appalachian Plateau
HS Earth's Minerals
This chapter covers types of minerals and how they form, how to identify minerals using their physical properties as well as the various ways minerals form and are used as resources.
This chapter discusses the rock cycle and each of the three major types of rocks that form on Earth. Separate sections cover igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks individually.
HS Weathering and Formation of Soil
This chapter begins with a discussion of mechanical and chemical weathering of rock. These concepts are applied to the formation of soil, soil horizons, and different climates related soils.
HS Erosion and Deposition
Erosion and Deposition considers how these processes shape Earth's surface through the actions of rivers, streams, ground water, wind, waves, glaciers, and gravity.
HS Human Actions and the Land
This chapter discusses causes and prevention of soil erosion, as well as ways that humans have polluted our land surface with hazardous materials, and what can be done to prevent this type of pollution.
HS Evidence About Earth's Past
This chapter discusses different modes of fossilization, correlation of rock units using relative age dating methods, and absolute age dating of rocks.
HS Earth's History
This chapter discusses the geologic time scale, the development of Earth from early in its history through today, and the evolution of life on Earth.
HS Earth's Atmosphere
This chapter covers the properties, significance, and layers of the Earth’s atmosphere, how energy transfers within our atmosphere, and movement of air throughout our atmosphere and over the Earth’s surface.
This chapter considers various factors of weather, cloud types, movement of air masses, and the development of different types of storms. Discussion concludes with weather forecasting using various tools, maps, and models.
The chapter considers how the different factors of Earth's dynamic surface affect climate, the different climates found worldwide, and the causes and impacts of climate change.
HS Human Actions and the Atmosphere
This chapter discusses types of air pollution and their causes, the effects of air pollution, and ways to reduce air pollution.
HS Earth's Fresh Water
This chapter considers the water cycle and develops student understanding of our lakes, rivers, streams, and ground water.
HS Earth's Oceans
This chapter discusses how Earth's oceans were formed, the composition of ocean water, as well as the action of waves and tides. Discussion continues with descriptions of the various areas of the seafloor and types of ocean life.
HS Human Actions and Earth's Waters
This chapter discusses many ways that water is used, the distribution of water on Earth, as well as types and sources of water pollution, and ways to protect our precious water supplies.
HS Earth Science Glossary
Earth Science - High school book glossary.
Physical Science Glossary
Physical Science Flexbook glossary