The Practice of Science
A. Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of
scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.</br>
B. The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific
C. Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the
generation and validation of scientific knowledge.</br>
D. Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.
The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge
A. Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion. </br>
B. Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change. </br>
C. Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.
The Role of Theories, Laws, Hypotheses, and Models
The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory," "law," "hypothesis," and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.
Science and Society
As tomorrows citizens, students should be able to identify issues about which society could provide input, formulate scientifically investigable questions about those issues, construct investigations of their questions, collect and evaluate data from their investigations, and develop scientific recommendations based upon their findings.
Earth in Space and Time
The origin and eventual fate of the Universe still remains one of the greatest questions in science. Gravity and energy influence the formation of galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, the planetary systems, and Earth. Humankind’s need to explore continues to lead to the development of knowledge and understanding of the nature of the Universe.
Over geologic time, internal and external sources of energy have continuously altered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. All life, including human civilization, is dependent on Earth's internal and external energy and material resources.
Earth Systems and Patterns
The scientific theory of the evolution of Earth states that changes in our planet are driven by the flow of energy and the cycling of matter through dynamic interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere, and the resources used to sustain human civilization on Earth.
Properties of Matter
A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass which gives it inertia.</br>
B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties.
Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.
Changes in Matter
A. Matter can undergo a variety of changes. </br>
B. When matter is changed physically, generally no changes occur in the structure of the atoms or molecules composing the matter. </br>
C. When matter changes chemically, a rearrangement of bonds between the atoms occurs. This results in new substances with new properties.
Forms of Energy
A. Energy is involved in all physical and chemical processes. It is conserved, and can be transformed from one form to another and into work. At the atomic and nuclear levels energy is not continuous but exists in discrete amounts. Energy and mass are related through Einstein's equation E=mc<sup>2</sup>. </br>
B. The properties of atomic nuclei are responsible for energy-related phenomena such as radioactivity, fission and fusion. </br>
C. Changes in entropy and energy that accompany chemical reactions influence reaction paths. Chemical reactions result in the release or absorption of energy.
Energy Transfer and Transformations
A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter. </br>
B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material. </br>
C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter. </br>
D. The Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy is conserved as it transfers from one object to another and from one form to another.
Motion of Objects
A. Motion is a key characteristic of all matter that can be observed, described, and measured. </br>
B. The motion of objects can be changed by forces.
Forces and Changes in Motion
A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects. </br>
B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls. </br>
C. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.
Organization and Development of Living Organisms
A. All living things share certain characteristics. </br>
B. The scientific theory of cells, also called cell theory, is a fundamental organizing principle of life on Earth. </br>
C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy. </br>
D. Life is maintained by various physiological functions essential for growth, reproduction, and homeostasis.
Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms
A. The scientific theory of evolution is the organizing principle of life science. </br>
B. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by multiple forms of evidence. </br>
C. Natural Selection is a primary mechanism leading to change over time in organisms.
Heredity and Reporduction
A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA. </br>
B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals. </br>
C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms. </br>
D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.
A. Plants and animals, including humans, interact with and depend upon each other and their environment to satisfy their basic needs. </br>
B. Both human activities and natural events can have major impacts on the environment. </br>
C. Energy flows from the sun through producers to consumers.
Matter and Energy Transformations
A. Living things all share basic needs for life. </br>
B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (photosynthesis and cellular respiration). </br>
C. Matter and energy are recycled through cycles such as the carbon cycle.
Use this section to practice with sample questions that will be similar to those used in the actual test.