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1.1: Science and the Natural World

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Lesson 1.1: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. A hypothesis must be based on scientific knowledge.

_____ 2. A scientific theory is a guess about how or why something happens.

_____ 3. Scientists make predictions that tell what will happen under any and all conditions.

_____ 4. The scientific method includes the steps involved in a scientific investigation.

_____ 5. “Did life on Earth evolve over time?” This question can be answered scientifically.

_____ 6. Experiments are performed under controlled conditions.

_____ 7. Scientists can study all aspects of the natural world, including experimenting on an extinct animal.

_____ 8. The dependent variable is always the opposite of the independent variable.

_____ 9. Communicating your results allows others to test your hypothesis.

_____ 10. Experimental evidence that agrees with your prediction supports your hypothesis.

_____ 11. The first step in a scientific investigation is always to develop a hypothesis.

_____ 12. Scientists gradually build an increasingly accurate and detailed understanding of the natural world.

_____ 13. Newton discovered the law of gravity when an apple fell from a tree and hit him on the head.

_____ 14. Scientific evidence is any type of data that may either agree or disagree with a prediction.

_____ 15. Scientific theories are broad explanations that are widely accepted as true.

Lesson 1.1: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Nature Can Be Understood

Scientists think of nature as a single system controlled by natural laws. By discovering natural laws, scientists strive to increase their understanding of the natural world. Laws of nature are expressed as scientific laws. A scientific law is a statement that describes what always happens under certain conditions in nature.

An example of a scientific law is the law of gravity, which was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton. The law of gravity states that objects always fall towards Earth because of the pull of gravity. Based on this law, Newton could explain many natural events. He could explain not only why objects such as apples always fall to the ground, but he could also explain why the moon orbits Earth. Isaac Newton discovered laws of motion as well as the law of gravity. His laws of motion allowed him to explain why objects move as they do.

Science Cannot Answer All Questions

Science rests on evidence and logic, so it deals only with things that can be observed. An observation is anything that is detected either through human senses or with instruments and measuring devices that extend human senses. Things that cannot be observed or measured by current means — such as supernatural beings or events — are outside the bounds of science. Consider these two questions about life on Earth:

  • Did life on Earth evolve over time?
  • Was life on Earth created through another method?

The first question can be answered by science on the basis of scientific evidence and logic. The second question could be a matter of belief. Therefore, it is outside the realm of science.

Questions

1. What is an observation?

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2. What is a scientific law?

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3. What scientific law explains why the moon orbits the Earth? What does the law state? Who developed this law?

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4. Complete this sentence: Natural laws allow scientists to ___________________.

5. Can science answer all questions? Justify your answer.

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Lesson 1.1: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Assumptions scientists make include:
    1. Nature can be understood through systematic study.
    2. Scientific ideas never need to be revised.
    3. Science can provide answers to all questions.
    4. all of the above
  2. A hypothesis
    1. is the first step in a scientific investigation.
    2. is based on what a scientist believes.
    3. is a possible question to a scientific answer.
    4. can be proved incorrect.
  3. A scientific theory
    1. is based on lots of evidence.
    2. is a guess about how or why something happens.
    3. can never be altered or changed.
    4. none of the above
  4. Which is the correct order in a scientific investigation?
    1. ask a question, test the hypothesis, communicate results, draw conclusions
    2. make observations, ask a question, form a hypothesis, test the hypothesis
    3. draw conclusions, ask a question, form a hypothesis, test the hypothesis
    4. ask a question, make observations, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions
  5. To test a hypothesis,
    1. a scientist first collects evidence.
    2. a scientist first draws conclusions.
    3. a scientist first makes a prediction.
    4. a scientist first makes observations.
  6. An experiment
    1. is performed under controlled conditions.
    2. generally tests how one variable is affected by another.
    3. contributes important evidence that helps scientists better understand the natural world.
    4. all of the above
  7. Food chains are scientific models that
    1. represent simple systems in nature.
    2. make the scientific systems easier to understand.
    3. are based on mathematical equations.
    4. are based on a prediction.
  8. Science cannot answer all questions.
    1. The above statement is true because science cannot answer matters of belief.
    2. The above statement is true because all science is based on logic.
    3. The above statement is false because science can prove that life evolves over time.
    4. The above statement is false because science is based on observations and evidence.

Lesson 1.1: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. a statement that describes what always happens under certain conditions in nature

_____ 2. a possible answer to a scientific question

_____ 3. any type of data that may either agree or disagree with a prediction

_____ 4. a plan for asking questions and testing possible answers

_____ 5. a representation of part of the real world

_____ 6. a broad explanation for events that is widely accepted as true

_____ 7. detected either through human senses or with instruments and measuring devices that extend human senses

_____ 8. a special type of scientific investigation that is performed under controlled conditions

_____ 9. developed the laws of motion

_____ 10. a statement that tells what will happen under certain conditions

_____ 11. developed theory of relativity

_____ 12. a distinctive way of gaining knowledge about the natural world

Terms

a. Albert Einstein

b. evidence

c. experiment

d. hypothesis

e. Isaac Newton

f. model

g. observation

h. prediction

i. science

j. scientific investigation

k. scientific law

l. scientific theory

Lesson 1.1: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. An ____________ is anything that is detected either through human senses or with instruments and measuring devices that extend human senses.

2. An ____________ is a special type of scientific investigation that is performed under controlled conditions.

3. A scientific ____________ is a statement that describes what always happens under certain conditions in nature.

4. A model is a representation of part of the real ____________.

5. ____________ is any type of data that may either agree or disagree with a prediction.

6. Scientific investigation are done by following the scientific ____________.

7. The goal of ____________ is to understand the natural world.

8. A hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific ____________.

9. Matters of ____________ are outside the realm of science.

10. A scientific ____________ is a broad explanation for events that is widely accepted as true.

11. The last step in a scientific investigation is ____________ what you have learned with others.

12. ____________ is a distinctive way of gaining knowledge about the natural world that starts with a question and then tries to answer the question with evidence and logic

Lesson 1.1: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Discuss why science is not able to answer all questions. Incorporate the steps of the scientific method into your response.

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