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11.2: Recycling Matter

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Lesson 11.2: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. Just like energy, matter is lost as it passes through an ecosystem.

_____ 2. Sublimation occurs when water changes to water vapor.

_____ 3. Part of a cycle that holds an element or water for a short period of time is a reservoir pool.

_____ 4. The deep ocean store carbon for thousands of years or more.

_____ 5. The ocean is a reservoir for water.

_____ 6. Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

_____ 7. The water on Earth is billions of years old.

_____ 8. Oxygen makes up most of Earth’s atmosphere.

_____ 9. Transpiration occurs when plants release water vapor through their stomata.

_____ 10. Nitrogen fixation is done by by nitrogen-fixing plants.

_____ 11. Cellular respiration releases oxygen into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

_____ 12. Water droplets fall from the atmosphere as condensation.

_____ 13. The water cycle takes place on, above, and below Earth’s surface.

_____ 14. Carbon cycles quickly between organisms and the atmosphere.

_____ 15. Plants use nitrogen gas from the air to make organic compounds.

Lesson 11.2: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Introduction

Where does the water that is needed by your cells come from? Or the carbon and nitrogen that is needed to make your organic molecules? Unlike energy, matter is not lost as it passes through an ecosystem. Instead, matter is recycled. This recycling involves specific interactions between the biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.

Biogeochemical Cycles

The chemical elements and water that are needed by organisms continuously recycle in ecosystems. They pass through biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere. That’s why their cycles are called biogeochemical cycles. For example, a chemical might move from organisms (“bio”) to the atmosphere or ocean (“geo”) and back to organisms again. Elements or water may be held for various periods of time in different parts of a cycle.

  • Part of a cycle that holds an element or water for a short period of time is called an exchange pool. For example, the atmosphere is an exchange pool for water. It usually holds water (in the form of water vapor) for just a few days.
  • Part of a cycle that holds an element or water for a long period of time is called a reservoir. The ocean is a reservoir for water. The deep ocean may hold water for thousands of years.

Questions

1. Why is matter not lost as it passes through an ecosystem?

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2. What is a biogeochemical cycle?

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3. What is an exchange pool? Give an example.

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4. What is a reservoir? Give an example.

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Lesson 11.2: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Which statement best describes a biogeochemical cycle?
    1. A cycle that recycles chemical elements and water.
    2. A cycle that continuously cycles chemical elements and water.
    3. A cycle that continuously cycles chemical elements and water that are needed by organisms.
    4. A cycle that continuously cycles chemical elements and water that are needed by organisms through an ecosystem.
  2. An example of an exchange pool is
    1. the atmosphere for water.
    2. the ocean for water.
    3. the Earth for carbon.
    4. all of the above.
  3. The relationship between condensation and precipitation is that
    1. precipitation needs to occur prior to condensation.
    2. condensation needs to occur prior to precipitation.
    3. both are parts of the water cycle.
    4. both b and c describe the relationship.
  4. The best description of the relationship between runoff and groundwater is that
    1. runoff turns into groundwater.
    2. groundwater turns into runoff.
    3. both result from precipitation and may end up in bodies of water.
    4. none of the above
  5. Nitrogen fixation
    1. is the process of changing nitrogen gas to nitrates.
    2. is the process of changing nitrates to nitrogen gas.
    3. is carried out by nitrogen-fixing plants.
    4. naturally occurs in the atmosphere.
  6. In terms of carbon and the atmosphere, autotrophs
    1. remove carbon through photosynthesis and release carbon by cellular respiration.
    2. remove carbon through cellular respiration and release carbon by photosynthesis.
    3. remove oxygen through photosynthesis but release carbon by cellular respiration.
    4. only remove carbon through photosynthesis.
  7. Which statement is correct?
    1. Nitrogen must cycle through an ecosystem because it is used to make proteins and nucleic acids.
    2. Nitrogen makes up most of Earth’s atmosphere.
    3. Nitrogen gas from the atmosphere cannot be used by plants to make organic compounds.
    4. all of the above
  8. Which statement is correct?
    1. Fossil fuels can store carbon for millions of years, and release carbon when burned.
    2. Fossil fuels can store carbon for millions of years, and release oxygen when burned.
    3. Fossil fuels can store oxygen for millions of years, and release carbon when burned.
    4. Fossil fuels can store nitrogen for millions of years, and release nitrogen when burned.

Lesson 11.2: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. cycles that recycle chemical elements and water needed by organisms

_____ 2. precipitation that falls on land and soaks into the ground

_____ 3. rain, snow, sleet, hail, or freezing rain

_____ 4. moves nitrogen back and forth between the atmosphere and organisms

_____ 5. includes the atmosphere, living organisms, and fossil fuel deposits

_____ 6. occurs when plants release water vapor through leaf pores

_____ 7. part of a cycle that holds an element or water for a long period of time

_____ 8. an underground layer of rock that stores water

_____ 9. precipitation that falls on land and flows over the surface of the ground

_____ 10. occurs when water on the surface changes to water vapor

_____ 11. occurs when ice and snow change directly to water vapor

_____ 12. the process in which water vapor changes to tiny droplets of liquid water

_____ 13. a global cycle that takes place on, above, and below the Earth’s surface

_____ 14. the process of changing nitrogen gas to nitrates

Terms

a. aquifer

b. biogeochemical cycle

c. carbon cycle

d. condensation

e. evaporation

f. groundwater

g. nitrogen cycle

h. nitrogen fixation

i. precipitation

j. reservoir

k. runoff

l. sublimation

m. transpiration

n. water cycle

Lesson 11.2: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. The ____________ of matter involves specific interactions between the biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.

2. Water on ____________ is billions of years old.

3. An exchange pool holds an element or water for a ____________ period.

4. ____________ occurs when plants release water vapor through stomata.

5. A ____________ holds an element or water for a long period.

6. Carbon is stored in the atmosphere, in living organisms, and as ____________ fuel deposits.

7. ____________ occurs when water on the surface changes to water vapor.

8. The nitrogen cycle moves nitrogen through the ____________ and ____________ parts of ecosystems.

9. Nitrogen makes up ____________ percent of Earth’s atmosphere.

10. ____________ is the process in which water vapor changes to tiny droplets of liquid water.

11. Water released by plants is a product of ____________.

12. Sublimation occurs when ice and snow change directly to ____________.

Lesson 11.2: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Give an overview of the carbon cycle, focusing on the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

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