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Lesson 11.3: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. Biomes may be terrestrial, aquatic, or atmospheric.

_____ 2. Temperature gets cooler as you move away from the equator.

_____ 3. Terrestrial biomes include all the land and water areas on Earth where organisms live.

_____ 4. Sunlight penetrates roughly 200 meters into the water.

_____ 5. Climate is the average weather in an area over a long period of time.

_____ 6. The growing season may last all year in a hot, wet climate.

_____ 7. Temperature refers to the conditions of the atmosphere from day to day.

_____ 8. Phytoplankton are tiny animals that feed on zooplankton.

_____ 9. Climate determines plant growth.

_____ 10. The terrifying anglerfish lives between 100 and 400 feet below sea level.

_____ 11. Plankton are tiny aquatic organisms that swim around in the photic zone.

_____ 12. The photic zone is water deeper than 200 meters.

_____ 13. The boreal forest in central Alaska has low biodiversity.

_____ 14. Aquatic biomes in the ocean are called marine biomes.

_____ 15. When aquatic organisms die, they sink to the bottom, so water near the bottom may contain more nutrients than water at other depths.

Lesson 11.3: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Terrestrial Biomes

Terrestrial biomes include all the land areas on Earth where organisms live. The distinguishing features of terrestrial biomes are determined mainly by climate. Terrestrial biomes include tundras, temperate forests and grasslands, chaparral, temperate and tropical deserts, and tropical forests and grasslands.

Terrestrial Biomes and Climate

Climate is the average weather in an area over a long period of time. Weather refers to the conditions of the atmosphere from day to day. Climate is generally described in terms of temperature and moisture. Temperature falls from the equator to the poles. Therefore, major temperature zones are based on latitude. They include tropical, temperate, and arctic zones (see figure below). However, other factors besides latitude may also influence temperature. For example, land near the ocean may have cooler summers and warmer winters than land farther inland. This is because water gains and loses heat more slowly than does land, and the water temperature influences the temperature on the coast. Temperature also falls from lower to higher altitudes. That’s why tropical zone mountaintops may be capped with snow.

(Image courtesy of CK-12 Foundation and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0.)

In terms of moisture, climates can be classified as arid (dry), semi-arid, humid (wet), or semi-humid. The amount of moisture depends on both precipitation and evaporation. Precipitation increases moisture. Evaporation decreases moisture.

Climate and Plant Growth

Plants are the major producers in terrestrial biomes. They have five basic needs: air, warmth, sunlight, water, and nutrients. How well these needs are met in a given location depends on the growing season and soil quality, both of which are determined mainly by climate.

  • The growing season is the period of time each year when it is warm and wet enough for plants to grow. The growing season may last all year in a hot, wet climate but just a few months in a cooler or drier climate.
  • Plants grow best in soil that contains plenty of nutrients and organic matter. Both are added to soil when plant litter and dead organisms decompose. Decomposition occurs too slowly in cold climates and too quickly in hot, wet climates for nutrients and organic matter to accumulate. Temperate climates usually have the best soil for plant growth.

Questions

1. What is a terrestrial biome? Give two examples.

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2. What is the difference between climate and weather?

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3. How do precipitation and evaporation affect climate?

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4. How does climate determine plant growth?

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5. What do plants need to grow? How are these needs affected by climate?

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Lesson 11.3: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. A biome is
    1. a group of similar ecosystems with the same general abiotic factors and primary producers and consumers.
    2. a group of similar ecosystems with the same general abiotic factors and primary producers.
    3. a group of similar ecosystems with the same general abiotic factors.
    4. a group of similar ecosystems with the same general biotic factors.
  2. Climate is _______________, whereas weather is _______________.
    1. the conditions of the habitat from day to day, the average weather in an area over a long period of time.
    2. the conditions of the atmosphere from day to day, the average weather in an area over a long period of time.
    3. the average weather in an area over a long period of time, the conditions of the atmosphere from day to day.
    4. the average weather in an area over a long period of time, the conditions of the habitat from day to day.
  3. Wetlands are important, as they
    1. remove excess nutrients from runoff before it empties into rivers or lakes.
    2. provide a safe, lush habitat for many species of animals.
    3. store excess water from floods.
    4. all of the above
  4. Organisms that live deep in the ocean must be able to
    1. withstand extreme water pressure, very hot water, and complete darkness.
    2. withstand extreme water pressure, very cold water, and complete darkness.
    3. withstand extreme water pressure, cold water, and limited sunlight.
    4. none of the above
  5. Nekton are _______________, and benthos are _______________.
    1. aquatic animals that swim, aquatic organisms that crawl.
    2. aquatic animals that crawl, aquatic organisms that swim.
    3. bacteria and algae, tiny animals that feed on nekton.
    4. decomposers, fish and shrimp.
  6. Aquatic biomes are defined in terms of which abiotic factors? (1) sunlight (2) dissolved oxygen and nutrients (3) temperature (4) moisture.
    1. 1 only
    2. 1 and 2
    3. 3 and 4
    4. 1, 2, 3, and 4
  7. Which best describes the relationship between climate and biodiversity?
    1. As climate determines the animals in an ecosystem, it directly influences the biodiversity of a biome.
    2. As climate determines the plants in an ecosystem, it also influences the biodiversity of a biome.
    3. As climate determines plant growth, it also directly influences the biodiversity of a biome.
    4. As climate determines plant growth, it also changes the biodiversity of a biome.
  8. Examples of adaptations of organisms include
    1. the large, hollow leaves of the aloe plant.
    2. the stout, barrel-shaped stems of cactus.
    3. the fat tail of the Gila monster.
    4. all of the above.

Lesson 11.3: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. includes all the land areas on Earth where organisms live

_____ 2. includes ocean and lakes

_____ 3. the period of time each year when it is warm and wet enough for plants to grow

_____ 4. bacteria and algae that use sunlight to make food

_____ 5. a state in which a plant slows down cellular activities

_____ 6. extends to a maximum depth of 200 meters below the surface of the water

_____ 7. the average weather in an area over a long period of time

_____ 8. aquatic biomes in the ocean

_____ 9. an area that is saturated with water or covered by water for at least one season of the year

_____ 10. have water that contains little or no salt

_____ 11. tiny animals that feed on phytoplankton

_____ 12. a group of similar ecosystems with the same general abiotic factors and primary producers

Terms

a. aquatic biome

b. biome

c. climate

d. dormancy

e. freshwater biome

f. growing season

g. marine biome

h. photic zone

i. phytoplankton

j. terrestrial biome

k. wetland

l. zooplankton

Lesson 11.3: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. The ____________ zone extends to a maximum depth of 200 meters below the surface of the water.

2. ____________ biomes have water that contains little or no salt.

3. Water in lakes and the ocean varies in the amount of dissolved oxygen and ____________.

4. The Gila monster’s fat tail serves as a storage depot for ____________.

5. ____________ grow best in soil that contains plenty of nutrients and organic matter.

6. A ____________ is an area that is saturated with water or covered by water for at least one season each year.

7. Terrestrial biomes include all the ____________ areas on Earth where organisms live.

8. Phytoplankton are bacteria and algae that use ____________ to make food.

9. ____________ is the average weather in an area over a long period of time.

10. In biomes with cold climates, plants may adapt by becoming ____________ during the coldest part of the year.

11. Terrestrial biomes are classified by climatic factors and types of primary ____________.

12. The ____________ is divided into different zones, depending on distance from shore and depth of water.

Lesson 11.3: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Identify and describe two terrestrial biomes.

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