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Lesson 14.4: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. Fungi make chlorophyll.

_____ 2. Fungi carry out photosynthesis.

_____ 3. Fungi are heterotrophs.

_____ 4. Most fungi use dead organisms as their food.

_____ 5. When fungi break down dead organic matter, nutrients are also released, and these nutrients can be used by other living organisms.

_____ 6. In all parasitic relationships involving fungi, the fungi are attacked by an animal parasite.

_____ 7. Fungi make enzymes that help break down organic compounds.

_____ 8. Bacteria, but not fungi, can break down the cellulose in plant cell walls.

_____ 9. Fungi use their hyphae to access organic matter not reachable to other organisms.

_____ 10. Fungi are the primary producers of carbon-containing compounds in forests.

_____ 11. A mycorrhiza is a parasitic relationship between a plant and a fungus.

_____ 12. A lichen is a mutualistic relationship between a photosynthetic organism (such as a cyanobacterium) and a fungus.

_____ 13. Lichens are often found on rocks.

_____ 14. Some fungi make antibiotics such as penicillin.

_____ 15. Human hormones such as insulin can be produced by genetically engineered fungi.

Lesson 14.4: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Symbiotic Relationships of Fungi

Not all fungi feed on dead organisms. Many are involved in symbiotic relationships, including parasitism and mutualism.

Fungi as Parasites

In a parasitic relationship, the parasite benefits while the host is harmed. Parasitic fungi live in or on other organisms and get their nutrients from them. Fungi have special structures for penetrating a host. They also produce enzymes that break down the host’s tissues.

Parasitic fungi often cause illness and may eventually kill their host. They are the major cause of disease in agricultural plants. Fungi also parasitize animals. Fungi even parasitize humans. Did you ever have athelete’s foot? If so, you were the host of a parasitic fungus. You can read more about fungi and human disease in the last lesson of this chapter.

Mutualism in Fungi

Fungi have several mutualistic relationships with other organisms. In mutualism, both organisms benefit from the relationship. Two common mutualistic relationships involving fungi are mycorrhiza and lichen.

A mycorrhiza is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a plant. The fungus grows in or on the plant roots. The fungus benefits from the easy access to food made by the plant. The plant benefits because the fungus puts out mycelia that help absorb water and nutrients. Scientists think that a symbiotic relationship such as this may have allowed plants to first colonize the land.

A lichen is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism. The other organism is usually a cyanobacterium or green alga. The fungus grows around the bacterial or algal cells. The fungus benefits from the constant supply of food produced by the photosynthesizer. The photosynthesizer benefits from the water and nutrients absorbed by the fungus.

Questions

1. Define parasitism.

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2. Name and describe an example of a parasitic relationship involving a fungus.

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3. Define mutualism.

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4. Name and describe an example of a mutualistic relationship involving a fungus.

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5. Why do you think that parasitism exists, when one of the organisms is harmed by the relationship?

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Lesson 14.4: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Fungi are ________ like ________.
    1. autotrophs, plants
    2. autotrophs, animals
    3. heterotrophs, animals
    4. heterotrophs, plants
  2. Saprotrophs get their food
    1. by doing photosynthesis.
    2. from absorbing dead organic matter.
    3. by engulfing living organisms .
    4. by eating live plants.
  3. Some of the nutrients that plants absorb from the soil
    1. are released into the soil from dead organic matter by fungi.
    2. are cellulose and lignin.
    3. are saprotrophs engulfed by the plant's leaves.
    4. none of the above
  4. Fungal hyphae
    1. are long filaments that aid in absorption of water and minerals.
    2. can penetrate deep into organic matter.
    3. release enzymes that can digest organic matter such as cellulose and lignin.
    4. all of the above
  5. Parasitic fungi
    1. help their host.
    2. harm their host.
    3. carry out photosynthesis.
    4. make lignin.
  6. Mycorrhiza is
    1. a parasitic relationship between a plant and an animal.
    2. a mutualistic relationship between a plant and an animal.
    3. a mutualistic relationship between a plant and a fungus.
    4. a parasitic relationship between a plant and a fungus.
  7. A lichen is
    1. a parasitic relationship between a plant and an animal.
    2. a parasitic relationship between a plant and a fungus.
    3. a mutualistic relationship between an animal and a fungus.
    4. a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism.
  8. Penicillin is
    1. an antibiotic produced by plants.
    2. an antibiotic produced by a fungus.
    3. a parasite of some insects.
    4. a mutualism between a fungus and an animal.

Lesson 14.4: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. a mutualism between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism (an algae or a cyanobacterium)

_____ 2. a type of fungus that gets its food from dead organisms

_____ 3. a relationship between two organisms that helps both organisms

_____ 4. a relationship between two organisms in which one is helped and the other is harmed

_____ 5. a kingdom whose members include yeasts, mushrooms, and molds

_____ 6. a kind of fungus used by humans in making bread and beer

_____ 7. a mutualism between a fungus and the roots of a plant

_____ 8. an organism that can make its own food

_____ 9. an organism that cannot make its own food and gets food made by other organisms

_____ 10. an organism that gets organic compounds from dead organisms

_____ 11. a carbon-containing molecule that is the main building block of plant cells walls

_____ 12. long, thin, often branching filaments made of fungal cells; helps with absorption of water and nutrients

Terms

a. autotroph

b. cellulose

c. decomposer

d. fungi

e. heterotroph

f. hyphae

g. lichen

h. mycorrhiza

i. mutualism

j. parasitism

k. saprotroph

l. yeast

Lesson 14.4: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. A __________ is an organism that cannot make its own food and gets food made by other organisms.

2. __________ is a relationship between two organisms that helps both organisms.

3. The kingdom of __________ includes members such as yeasts, mushrooms, and molds.

4. __________ is the main building block of plant cells walls.

5. __________ is a mutualism between a fungus and the roots of a plant.

6. Long, thin, often branching filaments made of fungal cells that help with absorption of water and nutrients are called __________.

7. An organism that can make its own food is an __________.

8. An organism that gets organic compounds from dead organisms is called a __________.

9. __________ is a kind of fungus used by humans in making bread and beer.

10. A __________ is a type of fungus that gets its food from dead organisms.

11. __________ is a a relationship between two organism in which one is helped and the other is harmed.

12. A __________ is a mutualism between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism (an algae or a cyanobacterium).

Lesson 14.4: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Can fungi be helpful to humans? Support your answer with specific examples.

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