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15.2: Four Types of Modern Plants

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Lesson 15.2: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. Mosses are nonvascular plants.

_____ 2. A gingko tree is a nonvascular plant.

_____ 3. Rhizoids are photosynthetic organs of bryophytes.

_____ 4. The spores of bryophytes are haploid.

_____ 5. The female gametophyte of a bryophyte produces female gametes.

_____ 6. Liverworts are much taller than a typical mature tree in the forest.

_____ 7. Mosses are adapted to grow in extremely dry climates, such as the desert.

_____ 8. Another term for vascular plants is tracheophytes.

_____ 9. Xylem transport sugars from the leaves to the roots.

_____ 10. The main function of phloem is to transport minerals such as nitrogen, from the leaves to the roots.

_____ 11. The transport cells of functional xylem are living.

_____ 12. Phloem tissue consists of living cells.

_____ 13. Water evaporates more rapidly from needle-like leaves than from broad, flat leaves.

_____ 14. The first leaf of a plant, which develops inside the seed, is called a cotyledon.

_____ 15. Seed plants existed at the same time as dinosaurs.

Lesson 15.2: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Evolution of Vascular Plants

The first vascular plants evolved about 420 million years ago. They probably evolved from moss-like bryophyte ancestors, but they had a life cycle dominated by the diploid sporophyte generation. As they continued to evolve, early vascular plants became more plant-like in other ways as well.

  • Vascular plants evolved true roots made of vascular tissues. Compared with rhizoids, roots can absorb more water and minerals from the soil. They also anchor plants securely in the ground, so plants can grow larger without toppling over.
  • Vascular plants evolved stems made of vascular tissues and lignin. Because of lignin, stems are stiff, so plants can grow high above the ground where they can get more light and air. Because of their vascular tissues, stems keep even tall plants supplied with water so they don’t dry out in the air.
  • Vascular plants evolved leaves to collect sunlight. At first, leaves were tiny and needle-like, which helped reduce water loss. Later, leaves were much larger and broader, so plants could collect more light.

With their vascular tissues and other adaptations, early vascular plants had the edge over nonvascular plants. They could grow tall and take advantage of sunlight high up in the air. Bryophytes were the photosynthetic pioneers onto land, but early vascular plants were the photosynthetic pioneers into air.


1. How and when did vascular plants evolve?

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2. What advantages do roots have compared to rhizoids?

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3. What advantages do stems give vascular plants?

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4. Why was evolution of leaves successful?

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5. If vascular plants have so many advantages, why do you think nonvascular plants still exist on earth today?

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Lesson 15.2: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Which seed structure provides the main source of food for the embryo?
    1. endosperm
    2. seed coat
    3. radicle
    4. hypocotyl
  2. Which of the following is not a plant adaptation to cold?
    1. a waxy cuticle on the leaves
    2. rhizoids
    3. woody trunks
    4. seeds
  3. The sugar-filled liquid produced by flowers is
    1. honey.
    2. maple syrup.
    3. nectar.
    4. high-fructose corn syrup.
  4. The female plant structure consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary is called
    1. a stamen.
    2. a sepal.
    3. a pistil.
    4. a carpel.
  5. The plant structure made of a filament and anther and which makes pollen is called
    1. an ovary.
    2. a stamen.
    3. a pistil.
    4. a sepal.
  6. Fruits can be best described as
    1. ripened ovaries.
    2. enlarged stems.
    3. above ground roots.
    4. hardened pollen.
  7. One advantage a plant gets from having flowers is that
    1. flowers are smaller than spores and easier to make.
    2. there is no sexual reproduction in plants with flowers.
    3. flowers attract pollinators, which spread pollen to other plants and thus promote cross-fertilization.
    4. all of the above
  8. Which of the following is not a major class of flowering plants?
    1. magnolids
    2. eudicots
    3. monocots
    4. mosses

Lesson 15.2: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.


_____ 1. part of a flower that is often colorful so pollinators will be attracted

_____ 2. seed plants

_____ 3. female reproductive structure containing the stigma, style and ovary

_____ 4. the area in many seeds where food is stored

_____ 5. vascular plants

_____ 6. structure protecting the immature flower bud

_____ 7. nonvascular plants

_____ 8. pollen-producing structure

_____ 9. a structure protecting the embryo

_____ 10. vascular tissue that transports water and minerals

_____ 11. vascular tissue that transports sugars

_____ 12. a sugary liquid produced by flowers


a. bryophyte

b. endosperm

c. nectar

d. petal

e. phloem

f. pistil

g. seed coat

h. sepal

i. spermatophyte

j. stamen

k. tracheophyte

l. xylem

Lesson 15.2: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. Another name for a plant with a vascular system is a __________.

2. Another name for a seed plant is a __________.

3. Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are all __________.

4. A __________ provides protection for an immature flower bud by covering it.

5. A plant embryo in a seed gets food from the seed's __________.

6. Sugars are transported through a vascular plant through the __________.

7. The __________ of a vascular plant transports water and minerals from the roots up through the stem and into the leaves.

8. A flower's __________ is made of a stigma, style, and ovary.

9. Many flowers produce a sugary liquid called __________ that helps attract pollinators.

10. __________ of flowers are often colorful to attract pollinators.

11. A seed is protected by the __________ that surrounds it.

12. The __________ is composed of an anther and a filament.

Lesson 15.2: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

In spermatophytes (seed plants), a fertilized egg develops into an embryo, which is contained within the seed. Describe the structure and function of each part of the embryo. What advantages do these structures give a spermatophyte compared to a bryophyte?

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