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16.1: Plant Tissues and Growth

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

Lesson 16.1: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. An organ is a structure made of only one type of tissue.

_____ 2. A tissue is made of a group of cells that have the same job.

_____ 3. Instead of having a plasma membrane, plant cells have a cell wall.

_____ 4. Plant cells are prokaryotic.

_____ 5. The main function of plastids is to maintain pressure against the cell wall.

_____ 6. A plant's central vacuole is typically large.

_____ 7. The plant cell wall is located just inside the plant's plasma membrane.

_____ 8. Plant cells walls can contain both cellulose and lignin.

_____ 9. Some types of parenchymal cells are photosynthetic cells.

_____ 10. Cell walls of sclerenchyma are very thick.

_____ 11. Xylem and phloem are types of dermal tissue.

_____ 12. The plant cuticle protects and waterproofs the above-ground parts of the plant.

_____ 13. Most plants grow only during a very short period during their lifetime.

_____ 14. Cell division decreases the number of cells in a plant.

_____ 15. Meristem is made of differentiated cells.

Lesson 16.1: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Plant Tissues

All three types of plant cells are found in most plant tissues. Three major types of plant tissues are dermal, ground, and vascular tissues.

Dermal Tissue

Dermal tissue covers the outside of a plant in a single layer of cells called the epidermis. You can think of the epidermis as the plant’s skin. It mediates most of the interactions between a plant and its environment. Epidermal cells secrete a waxy substance called cuticle, which coats, waterproofs, and protects the above-ground parts of plant. Cuticle helps prevent water loss, abrasions, infections, and damage from toxins.

Ground Tissue

Ground tissue makes up much of the interior of a plant and carries out basic metabolic functions. Ground tissue in stems provides support and may store food or water. Ground tissues in roots may also store food.

Vascular Tissue

Vascular tissue runs through the ground tissue inside a plant. It consists of xylem and phloem, which transport fluids. Xylem and phloem are packaged together in bundles.


1. Define the term tissue as used in this passage.

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2. What is a plant's epidermis? What is its function?

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3. Describe the functions of ground tissue.

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4. Why are xylem and phloem bundled together?

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5. Do you think that all plants have these three types of tissue? Why or why not?

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Lesson 16.1: Multiple Choice

Name_________________________________ Class_________ Date____________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Which of the following types of cells would be best at storing food for a plant?
    1. parenchymal
    2. sclerenchymal
    3. cell in a flower petal
    4. prokaryotic
  2. The organelle that maintains pressure against the cell wall, so that the plant cell keeps it shape, is the
    1. central vacuole.
    2. rough endoplasmic reticulum.
    3. smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
    4. nucleus.
  3. A membrane-bound organelle that contains DNA is a
    1. Golgi body.
    2. smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
    3. chloroplast.
    4. cell wall.
  4. The plant cuticle
    1. coats the surface of the root.
    2. is made by ground tissue.
    3. transports sugars throughout the plant.
    4. is made by epidermal cells.
  5. Xylem and phloem are
    1. dermal tissue.
    2. ground tissue.
    3. vascular tissue.
    4. epidermal tissue.
  6. The meristem consists of
    1. cells with a thick cuticle.
    2. differentiated cells.
    3. undifferentiated cells.
    4. all of the above.
  7. Plant roots can grow to become wider
    1. by cell division of differentiated root cells.
    2. from water absorption in the leaves.
    3. when the cuticle is made.
    4. through cell division in a root meristem.
  8. When a single cell divides once by mitosis, the product is
    1. a single cell with half the DNA of the original cell.
    2. two cells.
    3. four cells.
    4. eight cells.

Lesson 16.1: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.


_____ 1. a waterproof barrier between the above-ground parts of a plant and its environment

_____ 2. loosely packed, cube-shape cells

_____ 3. functions in the transport of water

_____ 4. celery strings are made of this type of cell

_____ 5. comprises much of the interior of a root, stem, or leaf

_____ 6. contains chlorophyll; conducts photosynthesis

_____ 7. has lignin-containing, thick cell walls

_____ 8. is made of epidermal cells

_____ 9. a large, membrane-bound, water-filled organelle that maintains a positive pressure against the plant cell wall

_____ 10. consists of undifferentiated, dividing cells

_____ 11. a membrane-bound, pigment-containing organelle

_____ 12. a cellulose-containing structure that covers the plant plasma membrane


a. cell wall

b. central vacuole

c. chloroplast

d. chromoplast

e. collenchyma

f. cuticle

g. dermal tissue

h. ground tissue

i. meristem

j. parenchyma

k. sclerenchyma

l. vascular tissue

Lesson 16.1: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. The __________ contains chlorophyll.

2. A membrane-bound organelle containing pigments other than chlorophyll is the __________.

3. The __________ contains dividing, undifferentiated cells.

4. __________ consists of loosely packed cells with thin cell walls.

5. The tissue type that makes up most of the plant's interior is __________.

6. The epidermis makes up the __________.

7. The __________ provides support for individual plant cells and for the entire plant.

8. The __________ contains xylem and phloem.

9. The __________ contains cells with thick, lignified cell walls.

10. The water-filled, membrane-bound __________ occupies the majority of space inside a mature plant cell.

11. __________ helps support the plant and provides wind-resistance; its cells have irregularly thickened cell walls.

12. The plant's __________ protects the plant against water loss, toxins, abrasions, and infections.

Lesson 16.1: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Humans grow to a certain height and then do not grow any taller. Do plants grow in the same way? How do plants get taller? Explain.

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