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Lesson 19.2: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. Fish make up more than half of all vertebrate species.

_____ 2. Fish can be more than 50 feet long.

_____ 3. Fish breathe oxygen found in the water.

_____ 4. Fish have a four-chambered heart that allows them to swim long distances.

_____ 5. Spawning increases the chances that fertilization will take place, and is the first step in parental care of their young.

_____ 6. Fish larvae are attached to a large yolk sac.

_____ 7. Lampreys feed on the blood of other fish species.

_____ 8. Many cartilaginous fish have powerful jaws.

_____ 9. Hagfish are the first fish with a backbone.

_____ 10. The rays are excellent swimmers, despite their strong bony skeletons.

_____ 11. According to the fossil record, bony fish evolved before the cartilaginous fish.

_____ 12. The majority of living fish species is ray-fined fish.

_____ 13. Sharks have a small brain but keen eyesight, making them excellent predators.

_____ 14. Some fish can self-fertilization by producing sperm and eggs.

_____ 15. A swim bladder allows fish to move up or down through the water column.

Lesson 19.2: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Structure and Function in Fish

Fish show great diversity in body size. They range in length from about 8 millimeters (0.3 inches) to 16 meters (about 53 feet). Most are ectothermic and covered with scales. Scales protect fish from predators and parasites and reduce friction with the water. Multiple, overlapping scales provide a flexible covering that allows fish to move easily while swimming.

Adaptations for Water

Many structures in fish are adaptations for their aquatic lifestyle. Several are described below.

  • Fish have gills that allow them to “breathe” oxygen in water. Water enters the mouth, passes over the gills, and exits the body through a special opening. Gills absorb oxygen from the water as it passes over them.
  • Fish have a streamlined body. They are typically long and narrow, which reduces water resistance when they swim.
  • Most fish have several fins for swimming. They use some of their fins to propel themselves through the water and others to steer the body as they swim.
  • Fish have a system of muscles for movement. Muscle contractions ripple through the body in waves from head to tail. The contractions whip the tail fin against the water to propel the fish through the water.
  • Most fish have a swim bladder. This is a balloon-like internal organ that contains gas. By changing the amount of gas in the bladder, a fish can move up or down through the water column.

Fish Organ Systems

Fish have a circulatory system with a two-chambered heart. Their digestive system is complete and includes several organs and glands. Jawed fish use their jaws and teeth to grind up food before passing it to the rest of the digestive tract. This allows them to consume larger prey.

Fish also have a centralized nervous system with a brain. Fish brains are small compared with the brains of other vertebrates, but they are large and complex compared with the brains of invertebrates. Fish also have highly developed sense organs that allow them to see, hear, feel, smell, and taste. Sharks and some other fish can even sense the very low levels of electricity emitted by other animals. This helps them locate prey.

Questions

1. Why do fish have scales?

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2. List three adaptations for water found in fish.

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3. List the fish organ systems.

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4. What is a swim bladder? What is its purpose?

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5. Describe the senses of fish.

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Lesson 19.2: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Adaptations for water in fish include
    1. several fins for swimming.
    2. a system of muscles for movement.
    3. gills that allow them to “breathe” oxygen in water.
    4. all of the above.
  2. A swim bladder allows fish to
    1. move the tail fin against the water to propel the fish through the water.
    2. move up or down through water.
    3. reduce water resistance when they swim.
    4. get rid of waste products while they swim.
  3. Most fish species belong to which class?
    1. cartilaginous fish
    2. lobe-finned fish
    3. ray-fined fish
    4. lampreys
  4. Characteristics of sharks include
    1. an endoskeleton composed of cartilage.
    2. a swim bladder, like all other fish.
    3. a relatively small brain.
    4. all of the above.
  5. Lampreys are known for
    1. secreting large amounts of thick, slimy mucus.
    2. feeding on the blood of other fish species using their large round sucker.
    3. their relatively large brain.
    4. a lung-like organ for breathing air.
  6. A fish larvae
    1. is very similar to the adult fish.
    2. is born sexually mature.
    3. is attached to a large yolk sac, which provides the larva with food.
    4. none of the above
  7. Spawning is when a
    1. large group of adults release their gametes into the water at the same time.
    2. male and female fish release their gametes together.
    3. male fertilizes the females eggs.
    4. a group of eggs develops into larvae.
  8. Fish organ systems include
    1. a centralized nervous system with a brain.
    2. an incomplete digestive system with just one opening.
    3. a circulatory system with a four-chambered heart.
    4. all of the above.

Lesson 19.2: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. aquatic vertebrates

_____ 2. newly hatched fish that are different from the adult form

_____ 3. the release of gametes into the water by a group of adult fish

_____ 4. light-emitting organs found on some fish

_____ 5. includes the majority of living fish species

_____ 6. includes coelacanths and lungfish

_____ 7. a balloon-like internal organ that contains gas

_____ 8. allows fish to “breathe” oxygen in water

_____ 9. reduce friction with the water

_____ 10. includes sharks, rays, and ratfish

_____ 11. very primitive fish

_____ 12. have a large round sucker, lined with teeth

Terms

a. cartilaginous fish

b. fish

c. gills

d. hagfish

e. larvae

f. lampreys

g. lobe-fined fish

h. photophores

i. ray-fined fish

j. scales

k. spawning

l. swim bladder

Lesson 19.2: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. Fish are aquatic ____________; they make up more than half of all vertebrate species.

2. Most fish have a swim ____________, which allows a fish to move up or down through the water column.

3. Fish have gills that allow them to “breathe” ____________ in water.

4. During ____________, a large group of adults come together to release their gametes into the water at the same time.

5. Fish have a circulatory system with a two-chambered ____________.

6. Cartilaginous fish include ____________, rays, and ratfish.

7. A fish ____________ swims attached to a large yolk sac, which provides the larva with food.

8. One of the most important traits of cartilaginous fish is their powerful ____________.

9. ____________ fish include the majority of living fish species.

10. The most striking feature of ____________ is a large round sucker, lined with teeth.

11. ____________ are very primitive fish; they do not have a backbone.

12. ____________ fish were also ancestral to amphibians - their stump-like appendages and lung-like organs evolved into amphibian legs and lungs.

Lesson 19.2: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Explain how fish reproduce and develop.

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