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24.3: Immune System Diseases

Created by: CK-12

Lesson 24.3: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. AIDS is not a single disease but a set of diseases.

_____ 2. AIDS occurs with elevated levels of helper T cells.

_____ 3. The HIV frequently mutates and changes its surface antigens.

_____ 4. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks itself.

_____ 5. An allergen is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen.

_____ 6. Any allergen that causes an allergy is an antigen.

_____ 7. Ragweed pollen and poison ivy are two common causes of allergies.

_____ 8. Allergies can be very dangerous, even life-threatening.

_____ 9. Histamines can reduce or eliminate the effects of the antihistamines that cause allergy symptoms.

_____ 10. Multiple sclerosis attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.

_____ 11. Systemic lupus erythematosus can attack the joints, heart, and other organs.

_____ 12. Immunodeficiency can occur naturally in older individuals.

_____ 13. Immunodeficiency can occur in people who have undergone organ transplants.

_____ 14. AIDS is a virus that attacks the immune system.

_____ 15. Because HIV screening is not accurate, donated blood can still be infected with the virus.

Lesson 24.3: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system fails to recognize the body’s own molecules as “self,” or belonging to the person. Instead, it attacks body cells as though they were dangerous pathogens. Some relatively common autoimmune diseases are listed in Table below. These diseases cannot be cured, although they can be treated to relieve symptoms and prevent some of the long-term damage they cause.

Name of Disease Tissues Attacked by Immune System Results of Immune System Attack
Rheumatoid arthritis tissues inside joints joint damage and pain
Type 1 diabetes insulin-producing cells of the pancreas inability to produce insulin, high blood sugar
Multiple sclerosis myelin sheaths of central nervous system neurons muscle weakness, pain, fatigue
Systemic lupus erythematosus joints, heart, other organs joint and organ damage and pain

Why does the immune system attack body cells? In some cases, it’s because of exposure to pathogens that have antigens similar to the body’s own molecules. When this happens, the immune system not only attacks the pathogens. It also attacks body cells with the similar molecules.

Immunodeficiency

Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is not working properly. As a result, it cannot fight off pathogens that a normal immune system would be able to resist. Rarely, the problem is caused by a defective gene. More often, it is acquired during a person’s lifetime. Immunodeficiency may occur for a variety of reasons:

  • The immune system naturally becomes less effective as people get older. This is why older people are generally more susceptible to disease.
  • The immune system may be damaged by other disorders, such as obesity or drug abuse.
  • Certain medications can suppress the immune system. This is an intended effect of drugs given to people with transplanted organs. In many cases, however, it is an unwanted side effect of drugs used to treat other diseases.
  • Some pathogens attack and destroy cells of the immune system. An example is the virus known as HIV. It is the most common cause of immunodeficiency in the world today.

Questions

1. What is an autoimmune disease?

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2. Describe rheumatoid arthritis.

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3. Why does the immune system attack body cells?

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4. What is immunodeficiency?

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5. Immunodeficiency may occur for a variety of reasons. Describe two of these reasons.

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Lesson 24.3: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. What is an allergy?
    1. An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antibody.
    2. An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen.
    3. An allergy is a disease in which the lymphatic system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen.
    4. An allergy is a disease in which the immune system destroys harmless pathogens.
  2. Two common causes of allergies are
    1. ragweed and poison ivy.
    2. ragweed and poison roses.
    3. poison ragweed and ivy.
    4. all of the above.
  3. An autoimmune disease
    1. occurs when the immune system initiates an immune response against foreign pathogens.
    2. occurs when the immune system attacks the body's own pathogens.
    3. occurs when the immune system fails to recognize the body’s own molecules as belonging to the person.
    4. occurs when the immune system fails to recognize foreign molecules as belonging to the person.
  4. Type 1 diabetes
    1. attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.
    2. is an autoimmune disease.
    3. results in high blood sugar levels.
    4. all of the above
  5. Causes of immunodeficiency include
    1. damage of the immune system by other disorders.
    2. suppression of the immune system by certain medications.
    3. destruction of cells of the immune system by pathogens.
    4. all of the above.
  6. Which statement is true of the relationship between HIV and AIDS?
    1. HIV causes AIDS.
    2. AIDS causes HIV.
    3. HIV and AIDS are the same disease.
    4. HIV and AIDS are not related.
  7. HIV transmission
    1. can occur through saliva.
    2. occurs through the direct contact of mucous membranes or some body fluids.
    3. can occur through kissing.
    4. all of the above
  8. AIDS occurs
    1. when helper T cells fall to a very low level.
    2. about 3-5 years after an HIV infection.
    3. when HIV levels match the level of helper T cells.
    4. after years of damage to the immune system by helper T cells.

Lesson 24.3: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. occur when the immune system fails to recognize the body’s own molecules as “self”

_____ 2. can treat mild allergy symptoms

_____ 3. occurs when the immune system is not working properly

_____ 4. autoimmune disease that attacks central nervous system

_____ 5. destroyed by HIV infections

_____ 6. the virus that attacks cells of the immune system and causes AIDS

_____ 7. any antigen that causes an allergy

_____ 8. the most severe allergic reaction

_____ 9. autoimmune disease that attacks tissues at joints

_____ 10. a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen

_____ 11. a set of diseases that results from years of damage to the immune system by HIV

Terms

a. anaphylaxis

b. antihistamines

c. AIDS

d. allergen

e. allergy

f. autoimmune disease

g. helper T cells

h. HIV

i. immunodeficiency

j. multiple sclerosis

k. rheumatoid arthritis

Lesson 24.3: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. An ____________ is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen.

2. Any ____________ that causes an allergy is called an allergen.

3. In autoimmune diseases, the ____________ system attacks body cells as though they were dangerous pathogens.

4. ____________ occurs when the immune system is not working properly.

5. AIDS results from years of damage to the ____________ system by HIV.

6. Many people infected with ____________ eventually develop acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

7. HIV is a ____________ that attacks cells of the immune system.

8. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of ____________ membranes or certain body fluids.

9. HIV is no longer transmitted through ____________ transfusions.

10. HIV infects and destroys helper ____________ cells.

Lesson 24.3: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Explain how HIV is transmitted and how it causes AIDS.

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