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25.2: Female Reproductive System

Created by: CK-12

Lesson 25.2: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. The female reproductive system breast-feeds a baby before birth.

_____ 2. The uterus is where a fetus grows and develops until birth.

_____ 3. A female produces all the eggs she will ever make before birth.

_____ 4. Just like boys, girls begin puberty around the age of 12.

_____ 5. Two pituitary hormones — follicle hormone and luteinizing-stimulating hormone — start puberty in girls.

_____ 6. Menarche is the beginning of menstruation.

_____ 7. After menstruation begins, two eggs typically matures each month — one from each ovary.

_____ 8. During oogenesis, one primary oocyte produces four mature eggs.

_____ 9. During ovulation, the follicle that protects the developing egg ruptures, and the oocyte is forced out of the ovary.

_____ 10. If fertilization is to occur, it will happen in a fallopian tube.

_____ 11. A mature egg forms only if a secondary oocyte is fertilized by a sperm.

_____ 12. During oogenesis, the cytoplasm divides equally between the resulting cells.

_____ 13. The average menstrual cycle lasts between 4 and 6 weeks.

_____ 14. During menstruation, the endometrium breaks away from the uterus and is discarded from the body.

_____ 15. Ovulation occurs around the middle of a monthly cycle.

Lesson 25.2: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Egg Production

At birth, a female’s ovaries contain all the eggs she will ever produce. However, the eggs do not start to mature until she enters puberty. After menarche, one egg typically matures each month until a woman reaches middle adulthood.

Oogenesis

The process of producing eggs in the ovary is called oogenesis. Eggs, like sperm, are haploid cells, and their production occurs in several steps that involve different types of cells, as shown in the figure below. You can follow the process of oogenesis in the figure as you read about it below.

(Image courtesy of Mysid and under the public domain.)

Oogenesis begins long before birth when an oogonium with the diploid number of chromosomes undergoes mitosis. It produces a diploid daughter cell called a primary oocyte. The primary oocyte, in turn, starts to go through the first cell division of meiosis (meiosis I). However, it does not complete meiosis until much later. The primary oocyte remains in a resting state, nestled in a tiny, immature follicle until puberty.

Maturation of a Follicle

Beginning in puberty, each month one of the follicles and its primary oocyte starts to mature. The primary oocyte resumes meiosis and divides to form a secondary oocyte and a smaller cell, called a polar body. Both the secondary oocyte and polar body are haploid cells. The secondary oocyte has most of the cytoplasm from the original cell and is much larger than the polar body.

Ovulation and Fertilization

After 12–14 days, when the follicle is mature, it bursts open, releasing the secondary oocyte from the ovary. This event is called ovulation. The follicle, now called a corpus luteum, starts to degenerate, or break down. After the secondary oocyte leaves the ovary, it is swept into the nearby Fallopian tube by the waving, fringe-like end.

If the secondary oocyte is fertilized by a sperm as it is passing through the Fallopian tube, it completes meiosis and forms a mature egg and another polar body. (The polar bodies break down and disappear.) If the secondary oocyte is not fertilized, it passes into the uterus as an immature egg and soon disintegrates.

Questions

1. A man produces sperm daily after puberty. When does a women produce her eggs?

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2. What is oogenesis?

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3. When does the haploid egg form?

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4. What is ovulation? When does ovulation occur?

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5. When is meiosis competed?

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Lesson 25.2: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Functions of the female reproductive system include
    1. receiving eggs during sexual intercourse.
    2. delivering a baby after birth.
    3. breast feeding a baby before birth.
    4. supporting the development of a fetus.
  2. Female reproductive structures include which of the following? (1) the Fallopian tubes, (2) the ovaries, (3) the uterus, (4) the pelvis.
    1. 1 and 2
    2. 2 and 3
    3. 1, 2, and 3
    4. 1, 2, 3, and 4
  3. Puberty in girls starts when
    1. the pituitary gland secretes estrogen, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone.
    2. the pituitary gland secretes luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.
    3. the ovaries secrete luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.
    4. the ovaries secrete estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone.
  4. The correct sequence of events in the ovary is
    1. the development of the oocyte - development of the follicle - degeneration of the corpus luteum - ovulation.
    2. the development of the oocyte - development of the follicle - ovulation - degeneration of the corpus luteum.
    3. the development of the follicle - development of the oocyte - ovulation - degeneration of the corpus luteum.
    4. the development of the oocyte - ovulation - development of the follicle - degeneration of the corpus luteum.
  5. The corpus luteum
    1. is the remains of the follicle after ovulation.
    2. is the remains of the ovary after ovulation.
    3. is the remains of the oocyte after ovulation.
    4. none of the above
  6. During menstruation,
    1. the endometrium of the uterus is shed from the body.
    2. the uterus is shed from the body.
    3. the corpus letuem is shed from the body.
    4. excess sperm is discarded from the uterus.
  7. If the egg is fertilized,
    1. the corpus letuem will be maintained and help nourish the egg.
    2. the endometrium of the uterus will be maintained and help nourish the egg.
    3. the ovary will be maintained and help nourish the egg.
    4. the oocyte will be maintained and help nourish the egg.
  8. Menopause
    1. is when a woman's menstrual cycles slow down and eventually stop.
    2. starts in the mid to late 40s.
    3. occurs and women can no longer produce eggs.
    4. all of the above

Lesson 25.2: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. a muscular organ where a fetus grows and develops until birth

_____ 2. stimulates the ovary to produce estrogen

_____ 3. external female reproductive structures

_____ 4. the process of producing eggs in the ovary

_____ 5. the female sex hormone

_____ 6. the process in which the endometrium of the uterus is shed from the body

_____ 7. a tube-like structure that receives sperm during sexual intercourse, and it provides a passageway for a baby to leave during birth

_____ 8. the beginning of menstruation

_____ 9. a period during which their menstrual cycles slow down and eventually stop

_____ 10. release of the secondary oocyte from the ovary

_____ 11. has a fringe-like structure that collects eggs from the ovary

_____ 12. typically occurs each month in a sexually mature female unless she is pregnant

Terms

a. estrogen

b. Fallopian tube

c. follicle-stimulating hormone

d. menarche

e. menopause

f. menstrual cycle

g. menstruation

h. oogenesis

i. ovulation

j. uterus

k. vagina

l. vulva

Lesson 25.2: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. ____________ is the female sex hormone.

2. The ____________ is where a fetus grows and develops until birth.

3. From an ovary, an egg is swept into a ____________ tube.

4. The two sex chromosomes in females are ____________.

5. Luteinizing hormone and ____________ hormone stimulate the ovary to produce estrogen.

6. Girls typically reach their adult height by about age ____________.

7. Menarche is the beginning of ____________.

8. After puberty, once a month a follicle matures and its primary oocyte resumes ____________.

9. When the follicle is mature, the secondary oocyte is released in a process called ____________.

10. Menstruation is the process in which the endometrium of the ____________ is shed from the body.

11. The process of producing eggs in the ovary is called ____________.

12. At birth, a female’s ovaries contain all the ____________ she will ever produce.

13. Ovulation occurs around day ____________ of the monthly menstrual cycle.

14. After ____________, ovaries no longer produce eggs.

Lesson 25.2: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Describe the phases of the menstrual cycle.

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