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5.3: Reproduction and Meiosis

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Lesson 5.3: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. The basic types of reproduction are asexual reproduction, binary reproduction and sexual reproduction.

_____ 2. Sexual reproduction always involves two parents.

_____ 3. Asexual reproduction always involves two parents.

_____ 4. Meiosis starts with one cell and ends with four.

_____ 5. “Crossing-over” can occur in meiosis I but not meiosis II.

_____ 6. Prokaryotes go through meiosis I and eukaryotes go through meiosis II.

_____ 7. A zygote is the first cell of a new organism.

_____ 8. Meiosis I and mitosis are very similar.

_____ 9. In humans, a gamete will have 23 chromosomes.

_____ 10. In binary fission, parent and offspring are identical.

_____ 11. In sexual reproduction, parents and offspring are never identical.

_____ 12. Gametes are diploid, a zygote is haploid.

_____ 13. Egg and sperm are diploid gametes.

_____ 14. Meiosis is involved in the production of gametes.

_____ 15. Starfish can reproduce by fragmentation - that is, a whole new fish can grow from just a single arm.

Lesson 5.3: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Meiosis

The process that produces haploid gametes is meiosis. Meiosis is a type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half. It occurs only in certain special cells of the organisms. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes separate, and the haploid cells that form have only one chromosome from each pair. Two cell divisions occur during meiosis, and a total of four haploid cells are produced. The two cell divisions are called meiosis I and meiosis II.

Phases of Meiosis

Meiosis I begins after DNA replicates during interphase. In both meiosis I and meiosis II, cells go through the same four phases as mitosis. However, there are important differences between meiosis I and mitosis.

Meiosis I

  1. Prophase I: The nuclear envelope begins to break down, and the chromosomes condense. Centrioles start moving to opposite poles of the cell, and a spindle begins to form. Importantly, homologous chromosomes pair up, which is unique to prophase I. In prophase of mitosis and meiosis II, homologous chromosomes do not form pairs in this way.
  2. Metaphase I: Spindle fibers attach to the paired homologous chromosomes. The paired chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell. This occurs only in metaphase I. In metaphase of mitosis and meiosis II, it is sister chromatids that line up along the equator of the cell.
  3. Anaphase I: Spindle fibers shorten, and the chromosomes of each homologous pair start to separate from each other. One chromosome of each pair moves toward one pole of the cell, and the other chromosome moves toward the opposite pole.
  4. Telophase I and Cytokinesis: The spindle breaks down, and new nuclear membranes form. The cytoplasm of the cell divides, and two haploid daughter cells result. The daughter cells each have a random assortment of chromosomes, with one from each homologous pair. Both daughter cells go on to meiosis II.

Meiosis II

  1. Prophase II: The nuclear envelope breaks down and the spindle begins to form in each haploid daughter cell from meiosis I. The centrioles also start to separate.
  2. Metaphase II: Spindle fibers line up the sister chromatids of each chromosome along the equator of the cell.
  3. Anaphase II: Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles.
  4. Telophase II and Cytokinesis: The spindle breaks down, and new nuclear membranes form. The cytoplasm of each cell divides, and four haploid cells result. Each cell has a unique combination of chromosomes.

Questions

1. Define meiosis.

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2. Is the DNA replicated after meiosis I? Why or why not?

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3. Describe the main difference between metaphase I and metaphase II.

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4. State the phase where each of the following processes occurs: (a) sister chromatids separate, (b) homologous chromosomes form pairs, (c) two haploid cells form.

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5. What is final product of meiosis?

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Lesson 5.3: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. After meiosis there are
    1. two haploid cells.
    2. two haploid gametes.
    3. four haploid cells.
    4. four haploid gametes.
  2. Which of the following is a form of asexual reproduction?
    1. fragmentation
    2. meiosis
    3. binary fusion
    4. bubbling
  3. Which of the following is true about a zygote? (1) A zygote is the first cell of a new organism. (2) A human zygote has 23 pairs of chromosomes. (3) A zygote is produced through fertilization.
    1. 1 only
    2. 1 and 3
    3. 2 and 3
    4. 1, 2, and 3
  4. Differences between meiosis I and meiosis II include:
    1. how the chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell during meiosis I or meiosis II.
    2. the pairing of chromosomes in meiosis I but not meiosis II.
    3. the amount of DNA in a cell at the end of meiosis I or meiosis II.
    4. all of the above
  5. Because of when the chromosomes pair up during meiosis, crossing-over must occur during
    1. prophase II.
    2. metaphase II.
    3. prophase I.
    4. anaphase I.
  6. Homologous chromosomes separate during
    1. metaphase I.
    2. anaphase I.
    3. anaphase II.
    4. telophase II.
  7. A life cycle in which organisms switch back and forth between diploid and haploid stages
    1. is a haploid life cycle.
    2. is a diploid life cycle.
    3. is an alternation of generations life cycle.
    4. does not exist.
  8. The random distribution of homologous chromosomes during cell division is known as
    1. meiosis.
    2. independent assortment.
    3. genetic variation.
    4. crossing-over.

Lesson 5.3: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. the process in which two gametes unite

_____ 2. the swapping of genetic material during meiosis

_____ 3. a type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half

_____ 4. series of life stages and events of a sexually reproducing organism

_____ 5. involves a single parent

_____ 6. involves two parents

_____ 7. having half the number of chromosomes

_____ 8. having twice the number of chromosomes

_____ 9. a diploid cell

_____ 10. a haploid cell

_____ 11. the development of haploid cells into gametes

_____ 12. reproductive cells that unite to form an offspring

Terms

a. asexual reproduction

b. crossing-over

c. diploid

d. egg

e. fertilization

f. gametes

g. gametogenesis

h. haploid

i. life cycle

j. meiosis

k. sexual reproduction

l. zygote

Lesson 5.3: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. When cells divide during meiosis, homologous chromosomes are randomly distributed to daughter cells, and different chromosomes segregate ____________ of each other.

2. Crossing-over is the exchange of ____________ material between homologous chromosomes.

3. A human egg cell has ____________ chromosomes.

4. Binary fission, fragmentation, and ____________ are types of asexual reproduction.

5. Meiosis is a type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by ____________.

6. A human zygote has ____________ chromosomes.

7. The ____________ life cycle is the simplest life cycle.

8. Meiosis begins with one cell, and ends with ____________ cells.

9. Male gametes are called ____________, and female gametes are a(n) ____________ cell.

10. During ____________, spindle fibers attach to the paired homologous chromosomes.

11. Organisms that have a life cycle with ____________ generations switch back and forth between diploid and haploid stages.

12. Sexual reproduction involves ____________ parents.

Lesson 5.3: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

List three significant differences between meiosis I and meiosis II.

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