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7.3: Mutation

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

Lesson 7.3: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. Mutations only occur in DNA.

_____ 2. All mutations are harmful.

_____ 3. Somatic mutations can be transmitted to offspring.

_____ 4. A point mutation is a change in a single nucleotide in DNA.

_____ 5. Neutral mutations can have a significant effect on the organism.

_____ 6. Bacteria can have mutations that allow them to survive in the presence of antibiotic drugs.

_____ 7. A deletion or insertion of one or more nucleotides may result in a frameshift mutation.

_____ 8. Chromosomal alterations are mutations that change chromosome structure.

_____ 9. Mutagens are caused by environmental factors known as mutations.

_____ 10. A genetic disorder is a disease caused by a mutation in one or a few genes.

_____ 11. The cell does not have the capability to repair damaged DNA.

_____ 12. Point mutations can be described as silent, missense, senseless, or nonsense.

_____ 13. A translocation mutation swaps sections from two non-homologous chromosomes.

_____ 14. Natural sunlight can cause mutations.

_____ 15. Mutations are the source of all new genetic material in a species.

Lesson 7.3: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Beneficial Mutations

Some mutations have a positive effect on the organism in which they occur. They are called beneficial mutations. They lead to new versions of proteins that help organisms adapt to changes in their environment. Beneficial mutations are essential for evolution to occur. They increase an organism’s changes of surviving or reproducing, so they are likely to become more common over time. There are several well-known examples of beneficial mutations. Here are just two:

1. Mutations in many bacteria that allow them to survive in the presence of antibiotic drugs. The mutations lead to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
2. A unique mutation is found in people in a small town in Italy. The mutation protects them from developing atherosclerosis, which is the dangerous buildup of fatty materials in blood vessels. The individual in which the mutation first appeared has even been identified.

Harmful Mutations

Imagine making a random change in a complicated machine such as a car engine. The chance that the random change would improve the functioning of the car is very small. The change is far more likely to result in a car that does not run well or perhaps does not run at all. By the same token, any random change in a gene's DNA is likely to result in a protein that does not function normally or may not function at all. Such mutations are likely to be harmful. Harmful mutations may cause genetic disorders or cancer.

• A genetic disorder is a disease caused by a mutation in one or a few genes. A human example is cystic fibrosis. A mutation in a single gene causes the body to produce thick, sticky mucus that clogs the lungs and blocks ducts in digestive organs.
• Cancer is a disease in which cells grow out of control and form abnormal masses of cells. It is generally caused by mutations in genes that regulate the cell cycle. Because of the mutations, cells with damaged DNA are allowed to divide without limits. Cancer genes can be inherited.

Questions

1. What is a beneficial mutation?

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2. What is a harmful mutation?

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3. What type of mutation can cause cancer?

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4. How can a mutation result in a genetic disorder? Give an example.

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5. Why are beneficial mutations essential for evolution to occur?

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Lesson 7.3: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

1. Which of the following statements concerning mutations is correct?
1. Mutations can happen spontaneously without any outside influence.
2. Cigarette smoke is a significant cause of mutations.
3. Mutations may occur during DNA replication or transcription.
4. all of the above
2. Germline mutations are potentially dangerous, as they
1. are confined to just one cell and its daughter cells.
2. can be passed on to offspring.
3. can be silent mutations and go undetected.
4. all of the above
3. Which of the following types of mutations can result in a genetic disorder?
1. a deletion
2. an insertion
3. a duplication
4. all of the above
4. A frameshift mutation
1. changes the reading frame of the base sequence.
2. can be due to a translocation between two chromosomes.
3. may not have an effect on how the codons in mRNA are read.
4. all of the above.
5. Beneficial mutations
1. may only cause mild genetic disorders.
2. are silent mutations, which code for the same amino acid.
3. help organisms adapt to changes in their environment.
4. are only caused by beneficial mutagens, like barbecuing and tanning.
6. A missense mutation
1. results in a premature stop codon.
2. codes for a different amino acid.
3. codes for the same amino acid.
4. results in a frameshift mutation.
7. Chromosomal alterations include deletions and
1. transfer mutations.
2. doubling mutations.
3. inversion mutations.
4. location mutations.
8. Which of the following statements are correct concerning mutations?
1. Mutations are essential for evolution to occur.
2. A mutation is a change in the sequence of bases only in DNA.
3. Most mutations have a big effect on the organism in which they occur.
4. all of the above

Lesson 7.3: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. a deletion or insertion of one or more nucleotides that changes the reading frame

_____ 2. removal of nucleotides or removal of a segment of a chromosome

_____ 3. doubling of a segment of a chromosome

_____ 4. a change in the sequence of bases in DNA or RNA

_____ 5. occur in cells other than gametes

_____ 6. mutations that change chromosome structure

_____ 7. adding additional nucleotides into a chromosome

_____ 8. a change in a single nucleotide in DNA

_____ 9. reversal of a segment of a chromosome

_____ 10. anything in the environment that can cause a mutation

_____ 11. caused by a mutation in one or a few genes

_____ 12. generally caused by mutations in genes that regulate the cell cycle

_____ 13. swapping of material between two non-homologous chromosomes

_____ 14. occur in gametes

Terms

a. cancer

b. chromosomal alteration

c. deletion

d. duplication

e. frameshift mutation

f. genetic disorder

g. germline mutations

h. insertion

i. inversion

j. mutagen

k. mutation

l. point mutation

m. somatic mutations

n. translocation

Lesson 7.3: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. A change in the sequence of bases in ____________ is called a mutation.

2. A change in a single nucleotide in DNA is a ____________.

3. Chromosomal alterations are mutations that change ____________ structure.

4. A silent point mutation codes for the same ____________.

5. Mutations are essential for ____________ to occur because they increase genetic variation.

6. Neutral mutations have ____________ effect on the organism.

7. A ____________ mutation is a deletion or insertion of one or more nucleotides that changes the reading frame of the base sequence.

8. ____________ mutations can be transmitted to offspring.

9. A ____________ disorder is a disease caused by a mutation in one or a few genes.

10. ____________ is a disease in which cells grow out of control.

11. ____________ mutations have a positive effect on the organism in which they occur.

12. ____________ smoke contains dozens of mutagenic chemicals.

Lesson 7.3: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

What is a frameshift mutation? Explain how such a mutation can occur.

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