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Lesson 8.3: True or False

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

_____ 1. Two common biotechnology techniques are gene cloning and genetic engineering.

_____ 2. Gene cloning is the process of isolating and making copies of a chromosome.

_____ 3. Biotechnology has raised ethical questions.

_____ 4. When genes are cloned, DNA polymerase is used to join two pieces of DNA together.

_____ 5. Recombinant DNA is made from joining DNA from different sources.

_____ 6. Insulin was the first human protein to be produced by gene cloning.

_____ 7. The purpose of biotechnology is to create organisms that are useful to humans.

_____ 8. The polymerase chain reaction makes many copies of a gene or other DNA segment.

_____ 9. Gene cloning involves three steps: isolation, transformation, and selection.

_____ 10. The three steps of PCR are denaturing, annealing, and elongation.

_____ 11. The enzyme Taq Polymerase can work at high temperatures.

_____ 12. Transgenic crops have been created that make some food taste better.

_____ 13. Denaturing DNA occurs at room temperature.

_____ 14. Medicine and agriculture are two major fields that use biotechnology.

Lesson 8.3: Critical Reading

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow.

Gene Cloning

Gene cloning is the process of isolating and making copies of a gene. This is useful for many purposes. For example, gene cloning might be used to isolate and make copies of a normal gene for gene therapy. Gene cloning involves four steps: isolation, ligation, transformation, and selection.

  1. In isolation, an enzyme is used to break DNA at a specific base sequence. This is done to isolate a gene.
  2. During ligation, the enzyme DNA ligase combines the isolated gene with plasmid DNA from bacteria. (Plasmid DNA is circular DNA that is not part of a chromosome and can replicate independently.) The DNA that results is called recombinant DNA.
  3. In transformation, the recombinant DNA is inserted into a living cell, usually a bacterial cell. Changing an organism in this way is also called genetic engineering.
  4. Selection involves growing transformed bacteria to make sure they have the recombinant DNA. This is a necessary step because transformation is not always successful. Only bacteria that contain the recombinant DNA are selected for further use.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) makes many copies of a gene or other DNA segment. This might be done in order to make large quantities of a gene for genetic testing. PCR involves three steps: denaturing, annealing, and extension. They are repeated many times in a cycle to make large quantities of the gene.

  1. Denaturing involves heating DNA to break the bonds holding together the two DNA strands. This yields two single strands of DNA.
  2. Annealing involves cooling the single strands of DNA and mixing them with short DNA segments called primers. Primers have base sequences that are complementary to segments of the single DNA strands. As a result, bonds form between the DNA strands and primers.
  3. Extension occurs when an enzyme (Taq polymerase or Taq DNA polymerase) adds nucleotides to the primers. This produces new DNA molecules, each incorporating one of the original DNA strands.

Questions

1. What is gene cloning?

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2. What is PCR? Why is PCR done?

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3. What are the three steps of PCR?

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4. What are the four steps of gene cloning?

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5. What is recombinant DNA?

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6. Why is it important to select for transformed bacteria?

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Lesson 8.3: Multiple Choice

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Circle the letter of the correct choice.

  1. Recombinant DNA
    1. results from the ligation of an isolated gene and plasmid DNA.
    2. is inserted into a living cell in the transformation process.
    3. is screened for in the selection process.
    4. all of the above
  2. The steps of gene cloning are, in order,
    1. isolation, transformation, ligation, and selection.
    2. isolation, ligation, transformation, and selection.
    3. ligation, transformation, isolation, and selection.
    4. selection, transformation, ligation, and isolation.
  3. The steps of PCR are, in order,
    1. denaturing, annealing, and extension.
    2. denaturing, extension, and annealing.
    3. annealing, extension, and denaturation.
    4. extension, annealing, and denaturation.
  4. Transgenic crops have been created that
    1. yield more food.
    2. resist insect pests.
    3. survive drought.
    4. all of the above
  5. Ethical, legal, and social issues associated with biotechnology would include questions about
    1. the safety of genetically modified crops.
    2. the use of biotechnology in modifying a baby's genotype.
    3. the ownership of genetically modified organisms.
    4. all of the above
  6. PCR allows scientists to
    1. rapidly make many copies of a gene or other DNA segment.
    2. clone a recombinant DNA in bacteria.
    3. ligate together two pieces of DNA from different sources.
    4. all of the above.
  7. The first human protein produced using biotechnology was
    1. cytokine.
    2. insulin.
    3. DNA ligase.
    4. Taq polymerase.
  8. Biotechnology methods are used in which of the following? (1) medicine, (2) agriculture, (3) law enforcement.
    1. 1 only
    2. 2 only
    3. 1 and 2
    4. 1, 2, and 3

Lesson 8.3: Vocabulary I

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Match the vocabulary word with the proper definition.

Definitions

_____ 1. enzyme that joins two pieces of DNA

_____ 2. first human protein to be produced by genetic engineering

_____ 3. process that makes many copies of a gene or other DNA segment

_____ 4. the process of isolating and making copies of a gene

_____ 5. the process of placing recombinant DNA into a living cell

_____ 6. circular DNA that is not part of a chromosome

_____ 7. genetically modified plants

_____ 8. changing an organism by transforming with recombinant DNA

_____ 9. the use of technology to change the genetic makeup of living things for human purposes

_____ 10. made by joining DNA from two different sources

Terms

a. biotechnology

b. DNA ligase

c. gene cloning

d. genetic engineering

e. insulin

f. plasmid

g. polymerase chain reaction

h. recombinant DNA

i. transformation

j. transgenic crop

Lesson 8.3: Vocabulary II

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term.

1. Transgenic crops are genetically modified with new ____________ that code for traits useful to humans.

2. The ____________ makes many copies of a gene or other DNA segment.

3. DNA ____________ can join together an isolated gene and plasmid DNA.

4. Gene ____________ is the process of isolating and making copies of a gene.

5. Gene cloning involves four steps: isolation, ligation, ____________, and selection.

6. Plasmid DNA is circular DNA that is not part of a ____________.

7. Changing an organism by transforming with recombinant DNA is known as genetic ____________.

8. The use of biotechnology has raised a number of ____________, legal, and social issues.

9. The first step of the PCR process is ____________.

10. ____________ DNA is made by combining DNA from two different sources.

11. Biotechnology can be used to transform bacteria so they are able to make human ____________.

12. Biotechnology is the use of ____________ to change the genetic makeup of living things for human purposes.

Lesson 8.3: Critical Writing

Name___________________ Class______________ Date________

Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences.

Describe PCR. Discuss the necessary steps and potential applications in detail.

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